Advanced English Vocabulary Lesson

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2022-03-11・ 12828

Speak English With Vanessa channel


Let's talk about war, peace, and your feelings in English. Download the free PDF worksheet for this lesson here: http://www.speakenglishwithvanessa.com/free 1. Donate to Doctors Without Borders: https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/ 2. Donate to Save the Children: https://www.savethechildren.org/ 3. Book a stay at an AirBnb in Ukraine (make sure the place is owned by a family, not the city): https://www.airbnb.com/ Download my free e-book: "5 Steps To Becoming A Confident English Speaker" http://www.speakenglishwithvanessa.com/free-ebook --------------------------------------------------------------------- English book recommendations: https://www.amazon.com/shop/speakenglishwithvanessa Subscribe and follow on social media! I'd love to meet you! YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=theteachervanessa Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/englishwithvanessa/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/speakenglishwithvanessa Send us a postcard from your country: Speak English With Vanessa 825 C Merrimon Ave PMB # 278 Asheville, NC 28804 USA --------------------------------------------------------------------- Speak English With Vanessa helps English learners to speak American English fluently, naturally, and confidently. To become a fluent English speaker and have English conversations with a native English speaker, go to http://www.speakenglishwithvanessa.com

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

00:00
Vanessa: Hi, I'm Vanessa  
00:01
from SpeakEnglishWithVanessa.com. Let's talk  about war, peace and you. Let's get started.  
00:14
Have you been thinking about war  a lot in the last couple of weeks?  
00:18
Have you felt confused and overwhelmed and a  little bit helpless and maybe even hopeless?  
00:25
Well, today I want to help you be able to  express your feelings and understand some  
00:31
of the words and phrases that are used to talk  about war, about peace, and also how you can best  
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express how you're feeling during this time. I  think that can be some way of healing as well  
00:44
when we can accurately express ourselves. So let's start off today by talking about  
00:49
some war vocabulary, but before we get  started, I want to let you know that,  
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like always, I have created a free PDF worksheet  with all of today's vocabulary, sample sentences  
01:01
and ideas, and at the bottom of the PDF worksheet,  you can answer Vanessa's challenge question to  
01:08
help you use what you've learned and never  forget. You can download that free PDF with  
01:13
the link in the description. All right, let's  get started by talking about some vocabulary  
01:17
that you might have seen if you've been following  the news in English over the last couple weeks. 
01:23
Let's talk about people. You might have  heard the word allies. Allies means friends,  
01:29
people who are united and have the same ideas,  they're working together for the same cause.  
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So you could say, the United Nations or the UN  is made up of allies who are working together to  
01:43
avoid war. Refugees, or we often say the refugee  crisis. These are people who are fleeing war  
01:52
to go to somewhere more peaceful. There are a  lot of refugees fleeing Ukraine at this time.  
01:59
Civilians, civilians are people who are not in  the military, but during a time of war, maybe  
02:05
this has happened during a war in your country,  civilians take up arms to fight for their country. 
02:12
Take up arms means they are shooting guns, or  they are defending their country in some way.  
02:18
Civilians take up arms to defend their country.  Another group of people is innocent people. This  
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is a term that's often used in the media, and  you know what? Most people in war are pretty  
02:31
innocent. It's often the people in power who  are not innocent. But who suffers during a war?  
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It's innocent people, innocent people are  the ones that often suffer and often have  
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the biggest cost to pay. Let's next talk about  some common terms used to describe war time. 
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Invade, invade means to go in somewhere with  force. For example, the enemy invaded the capital  
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city. Human rights, a right is something that  humans just deserve. You don't need to pay for,  
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you don't need to do something to get it, but  it is a human right. We often use the term a  
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basic human right. During war time, we might say,  he acted with no regard toward basic human rights.  
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So this means that they did not treat  humans in a peaceful kind way. He acted  
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with no regard towards basic human rights. A crisis, many people blame the government  
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for this crisis. We sometimes combine these  words together and say, a human rights crisis.  
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If people are not being treated properly, it is  a human rights crisis. And sometimes we use the  
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word crisis as a softer word instead of the word  war. So sometimes you might see in a headline,  
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the crisis in a certain country. So it might  be the crisis in Ukraine, the crisis in Syria,  
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the crisis in Yemen. These are different words  that we can use to maybe soften the language a  
04:04
bit and not say war, but it's still a crisis. Talking about human rights, we often use the  
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verb to violate, to violate human rights. He  violated human rights during the war. This means,  
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he did not treat people with respect, with  kindness and with dignity, those are human rights,  
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instead he violated human rights  and treated people really poorly. 
04:30
Meddling, meddling, this is something steeped  in corruption. For example, the United States  
04:39
has been known to meddle in other country's  politics, or we could say, the United States  
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has been meddling in other country's politics.  This is pretty tricky because it means that the  
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United States government is not blameless, they  have been meddling in other country's politics,  
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and we don't know a lot about what really  happens in politics of really any of our  
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countries. So maybe other countries as well  are meddling in the politics of other places. 
05:12
Arms. Are we talking about this? No, we're talking  about guns and other types of weapons. So we might  
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say that, the citizens, like I told you before,  the citizens took up arms against the enemy,  
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they took up their guns and they fought back  against the enemy. A blockade. We can kind  
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of get the sense of this word from the root,  block, to block someone is to stop someone.  
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So when we say that the enemy troops  formed a blockade around the city so  
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that no supplies could go in and no supplies  could come out, a blockade, you're kind of  
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stopping anyone or anything from going in and out. Casualties, casualties. Notice the pronunciation  
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of this word, casualties. The S sounds like ...  casualties. There were thousands of casualties  
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on either side. This is people who are  killed or injured. Thousands of casualties.  
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Did you know that words are powerful? Absolutely.  So let's talk about some phrases that deal with  
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the way that we speak during war time. And they  often relate to peace time as well. Propaganda,  
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propaganda, don't believe all the propaganda  distributed by the media. This is often slanted,  
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that means incorrect information given to the  people to make them believe something specific. 
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So an example of propaganda might be, "We  are winning the war, the enemy is fleeing."  
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But in reality, we're not winning the war and the  enemy is not fleeing. But the propaganda wants the  
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people to feel a sense of, "We are winning, we are  doing it." This sense of morale in order to keep  
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going, or maybe to make the government look better  than it is. So this is an example of propaganda.  
07:12
A word you might also see is disinformation,  disinformation. This is talking about  
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information that is intentionally, which means  on purpose, twisted so that it's incorrect,  
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and it makes people believe something  else. This is very similar to propaganda. 
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So we might say, "The media can manipulate its  audiences with some clever disinformation." Maybe  
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you're showing one statistic, but you're  not showing the other. This is slightly  
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less serious than the word propaganda, but  really in reality, it has the same effect. It  
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makes people believe exactly what you want them to  believe instead of the truth. Rhetoric, rhetoric,  
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notice the pronunciation of this word. The T in  the middle sounds like a D in American English,  
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rhetoric, rhetoric. This is talking about  language that is very influential and it often  
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has to do with something that's manipulative  and something that's not quite so truthful. 
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So we often pair this with the word political,  political rhetoric. You might say, "During his  
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speech, I realized that none of it was true, it  was all just political rhetoric." Something that  
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he's trying to say to get people to believe,  but in reality, none of it's actually true.  
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Dissent, dissent. This is talking about having an  opinion opposite of what is the majority or often  
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the opposite of what is acceptable. It might not  be the majority opinion, but if you're living in a  
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country that says, "This is the best thing." And  then you think, "Eh, that's probably not true." 
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Maybe if your country is feeling like, or  your politicians are saying, "War is the best  
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option." And you're thinking, "You know what?  It's not the best option." That is dissent,  
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and is quite dangerous to say that out loud.  Because oftentimes as we can see in this sentence,  
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politicians try to suppress dissent. That means  that they try to have opposite views silenced.  
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Whether that means having some kind of censorship,  you're not allowed to publish certain things or  
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say certain things, or actually taking people  away who express dissent. But this is something  
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that's dangerous to do, but it has often changed  a lot of wars and it changed a lot of history by  
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people being courageous enough to express dissent. Let's talk about a couple of idioms about war that  
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you might hear in the media, or you might want  to use as you're talking about our news events.  
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An act of war, invading Ukraine is an act of war.  It is not an act of peace, it is not an act of  
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negotiation, it's an act of war. When you invade  another country, it's an act of war. This doesn't  
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mean that there was a signed declaration that  said, we are having war, but we can all agree,  
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invading a country is an act of war. To cut ties  with someone. So this is a way we can kind of  
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fight back against war aggressors. We could say,  "A lot of companies and organizations are cutting  
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ties with people who violate human rights." So this means they're stopping to purchase  
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items from that country, they are trying to stop  political leaders from doing certain things by not  
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giving them privileges. They are cutting ties with  the country. To add fuel to the fire. Oftentimes  
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media adds fuel to the by spreading lies or  propaganda. This means there's already a fire,  
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there's already a problem. We have war happening,  we have lots of human rights issues happening  
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all around the world. There are problems,  it's a fire. But what happens when we add  
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fuel? So let's imagine figurative, logs, wood,  gasoline, add fuel to that fire. It doesn't help,  
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it makes it worse. So the media often adds fuel  to the fire and doesn't help promote peace. 
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Look for who stands to gain something. I love this  expression because it really challenges us to dig  
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deep. It means who benefits. So of course, war is  a terrible thing, death of innocent people is a  
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terrible thing. Our homes, people fleeing, all of  this is awful. So why does it happen? Well, we can  
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look for who stands to gain something. We're not  talking about standing up, it's just part of this  
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expression. And it means who will gain something  by blowing up things, who will gain something by  
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invading, who will gain something by having  complete power. Well, I think this challenges  
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us to dig deeper, look into history as well,  and to see who really stands to gain something. 
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Our final expression in this war vocabulary  section, before we go on to peace is something  
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that touches me deeply. It's the expression high  and mighty, high and mighty. For me, I'm from  
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the US, but in my opinion, Americans can't act  high and mighty, especially American politicians  
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cannot act high and mighty. This means  superior because they have also caused  
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senseless or meaningless wars and bloodshed. So,  in this situation, if American politicians say,  
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"Oh, we would never do something like this, we are  completely uninvolved and completely innocent. It  
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is only them." This is acting high and mighty. I think it makes the situation very complicated  
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because as Americans, a lot of us know that our  country has been involved in similar situations,  
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senseless invasions, senseless violations  of human rights. So while we want to help,  
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we might not feel like we are completely  innocent too. Okay. That was all really heavy.  
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Let's go on to the next section. I want to  share with you a quote from a famous children's  
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show host. When I was a child, I watched  Mister Rogers a lot. If you have children,  
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you can see some of the clips on YouTube  from Mister Rogers, a wonderful TV show.  
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And he dealt with some incredibly difficult topics  for children. He often talked about divorce, war,  
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racial segregation. He tackled  a lot of difficult topics. 
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One of the quotes from Mister Rogers that I'd like  to share with you today is this. "When I was a boy  
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and I would see scary things in the news, my  mother would say to me, 'Look for the helpers,  
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you will always see people who are helping.'"  This is a beautiful way to talk about war with  
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children. Yes, there is senseless tragedy  and there are also people who are helping,  
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the helpers. So we can focus on the  helpers in trying to be helpers ourselves.  
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So now let's talk about some helper vocabulary  or words that are related to wanting peace. 
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Volunteers. Thousands of volunteers have flooded  to Ukraine in the surrounding countries to help  
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with the refugee crisis. These volunteers. Relief,  relief can be a feeling. I feel ... relief. But in  
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this situation it's more physical. It means giving  aid, maybe you're giving some money or food,  
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or actually you are going there physically and  helping, you are giving relief. The people in  
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need are getting relief. So we might say that, for  example, the organization, Doctors Without Borders  
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gives relief to thousands of people in need. Donations or charitable contributions. Thanks  
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to donations, thousands of people are getting  the help that they need. This is usually  
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financial contributions, but sometimes it means,  for your local community, people are giving  
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cans of vegetables or soup to families who don't  have food. This is a donation, it's a charitable  
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contribution. It's something physical. It might  even mean, you are donating your time. If you live  
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in the surrounding countries, maybe you live in  Poland and you're wanting to help people who are  
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fleeing Ukraine, maybe you donate an extra  bedroom in your house, maybe you donate your time  
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to help those people who are fleeing from their  home. This is great to do, to give a donation. 
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A little more formal word that we use to  talk about the same thing is humanitarian  
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or humanitarian aid. And this is something  similar that charities do when they go to a place  
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that's in a crisis. They give humanitarian  aid, maybe that's money, food, their time,  
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medicine. They're giving something that humans,  humanitarian, that humans need. Stability, we  
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all hope that stability will come to Ukraine and  Russia soon, as well as many other places around  
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the world that are experiencing instability.  We hope that stability will come soon. 
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Next let's talk about three words that involve  the end of war. Peace talks, ceasefire, and truce.  
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We all hope that there will be peace talks  soon. These are official conversations between  
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politicians or leaders of a country about ending  a war or having a ceasefire. Cease means stop, and  
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fire has to do with guns and shooting. So we hope  that there will be a ceasefire soon. And truce is  
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the official moment or the official document that  you sign. We signed a truce. We shook hands in a  
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truce, that means that there is no more war. When war is over, it's time to rebuild.  
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Rebuild deals with rebuilding buildings and also  rebuilding our emotional morale. It's important to  
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rebuild your cities after war. Reconciliation,  reconciliation means you are unifying and not  
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necessarily becoming friends, but not being  enemies anymore. So, we hope when the war is over,  
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the countries will be able to have some kind of  reconciliation, there won't be as many tensions  
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as before. But sometimes truth is that it takes  a long time to recover after a war. To recover.  
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This is emotionally, physically, economically, all  of these things. It takes a long time to recover. 
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Now let's talk about some peace idioms. To be  up in arms. Now we already talked about how  
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arms are guns. So how can that be about peace?  Well, if we said people around the world are up  
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in arms because no one wants there to be war in  Ukraine and other countries around the world.  
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Are up in arms, this means they are frustrated  and angry and upset about the war. "We're up  
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in arms. Why is there war?" Maybe your physical  arms are raised, and it means that you are upset  
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about something. People around the world  are up in arms because no one wants war. 
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To give the shirt off your back. Does this mean  you're literally taking off your shirt and giving  
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it to someone else? Usually it's not quite so  literal. It means that you're willing to give  
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everything to help someone in need. So we might  say, a lot of people are willing to give the shirt  
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off their back to help the refugees who are  leaving Ukraine at this time. They are really  
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generous and willing to give the shirt off their  back to help someone else. You might even say this  
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to your friend. If your friend is having a hard  time, you might say, "Hey, you know what? I'm  
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willing to give you the shirt off my back during  this hard time. So please call me whenever you  
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need me." It shows you are generous and you care. To lend a hand. You're not letting someone borrow  
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your hand, it just means you are willing to  help. So we might say that there are thousands,  
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most likely millions of people around the world  who want to lend a hand to those in need. And  
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oftentimes those people take action and they  actually do lend a hand. It doesn't mean that  
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you need to physically be there and be on the  ground helping people, it could be that you give  
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a charitable donation or maybe you helped to  organize something and volunteer in your city.  
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Okay, this means that you are  lending a hand to those in need. 
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Our final peace expression is the light at the  end of the tunnel. It might not feel like it right  
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now, but at some point there will be a light at  the end of the tunnel. This means you're looking  
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through the darkness and you see a little spot  of hope. This is something that we all look for  
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when we're going through hard times. As you  look for that light at the end of the tunnel,  
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it might feel like it's a really long tunnel,  but we can all hope that there will be a light  
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at the end of the tunnel coming soon. The final section in this long and quite  
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heavy video is an important one. It's how to talk  about you and how you feel. Millions of people  
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around the world, whether it is over the  last couple weeks or over the last 100 years,  
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have felt some really serious feelings when  it comes to unrest and war and danger. So let  
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me give you some expressions that you can use  to describe how you're feeling. Sometimes just  
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saying it, telling a friend, telling a  family member, can help you to heal as well. 
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Let me give you some ideas. I feel so afraid  about what war might mean for the world.  
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I'm so angry that such a small number of people  are responsible for hurting so many people.  
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I'm anxious about the threat of a nuclear  war. I'm so confused about why this war is  
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even happening. Watching the news and scrolling  on social media just makes me feel depressed.  
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I feel so helpless about not being able to do  anything to stop the war. I feel numb when I  
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think about the long term effects of war. This word numb has to do with not feeling  
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anything, oftentimes because you're overwhelmed  with all of the bad things that are happening,  
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you just feel nothing, you have to block it out in  order to live your daily life. So you might feel  
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numb. There's just nothing I can really do, I  can't have any impact and I'm just going to live  
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my daily life. I feel numb because you feel so  overwhelmed. I feel overwhelmed. The word we  
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just used. I feel overwhelmed when I think about  citizens of all ages being affected by war. I feel  
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a lot of resentment towards political leaders  who have let this happen. I feel resentment.  
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This is kind of a burning feeling inside of  you. Like, "How could they do this? Why would  
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they not care about the people?" This kind  of resentment that can be deep inside of us. 
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I feel so sad for the innocent victims of war.  I feel scared for the future of the children  
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affected by war. I was shocked when I found out  that these nations were going into war. I was  
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stunned when I heard about the invasion. One of  the most common expressions is, I wish I could  
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help, or I wish I could do something. We often  do feel in this state of helplessness, beside  
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donating money to send to a charity, we feel very  disconnected from people who are suffering. So in  
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this way, we might say an expression like this.  I wish I could do something. You might even say  
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this to people in your own life who are going  through a hard time, I wish I could do something  
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to help them, but I just don't know what I can do. This relates to our own personal lives as well,  
23:48
and how we care and we want to give, and we  want to help other people. But the reality is,  
23:54
we often feel helpless about it. But at the  end of this video, I'd like to give you a  
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couple of recommendations for something that you  can do. Our final expression before we go today is  
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a little bit more positive. It is hopeful, despite  all of the bad that I see in the world, I feel  
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hopeful that peace will come again. I feel hopeful  that there is a light at the end of the tunnel. 
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For all of my students in Ukraine and in  other countries experiencing war right now,  
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and also for my innocent Russian students  who are courageously expressing dissent  
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and fighting against war, I want to say, thank  you for learning English with me. I hope that  
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my lessons can bring you a little bit of joy, a  little bit of hope, and today, some expressions to  
24:42
be able to describe what you are experiencing. For  the rest of you living in the rest of the world,  
24:47
I know that you want to be able to do something,  that's how I feel, I want to be able to reach  
24:52
out and help, but we often feel helpless. So I want to give you three options. The first one  
24:58
is a wonderful organization called Doctors  Without Borders. They are providing medical care  
25:04
all around the world to places in need. It's not  just to Ukraine, but also to many other countries  
25:10
who are in need and need medical help. The next  organization is called Save the Children. It's  
25:16
pretty self explanatory. Their goal is to be able  to aid children in times of crisis. So they're  
25:22
going into Ukraine and surrounding countries  and to many other countries around the world. 
25:28
The final idea is something that I saw the  other day and I decided to try for myself.  
25:33
If you have ever booked a vacation stay using the  website, Airbnb, you can book a stay with someone  
25:40
in Ukraine, someone who has an Airbnb property,  and basically this is just a way to directly give  
25:47
someone money. You're not going there, you're  not staying at their house, but you're saying,  
25:51
"Hey, here's some money I'd like to be able to  individually support you. So I'm going to book  
25:56
your Airbnb stay and use this money to be able  to make it through the next couple of months." 
26:03
I have one final bonus way that you can help, and  that is, in the comments to say something positive  
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to our friends, all around the world, Ukraine and  other countries who are experiencing human rights  
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violations, a crisis, a war, say something nice to  them in the comments, help them to feel our unity  
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and support. It's not just money that counts,  it is also this emotional support that can help  
26:27
people to get through a hard time. Well, thank  you so much for learning English with me. Don't  
26:32
forget to download today's free PDF worksheet  so that you can remember all of these words  
26:37
and be able to use them to understand the news  and be able to express yourself during hard times. 
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I hope that this is useful to you. You can click  on the link in the description to download that  
26:47
free PDF worksheet. Well, thank you so much for  learning English with me, and I will see you again  
26:52
next Friday for a new lesson here on my YouTube  channel. Bye. The next step is to download  
26:58
the free PDF worksheet for this lesson. With  this free PDF, you will master today's lesson  
27:05
and never forget what you have learned.  You can be a confident English speaker.  
27:11
Don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel  for a free English lesson every Friday. Bye.
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