Free English Class! ๐Ÿ—จ๏ธ๐Ÿ—ฃ๏ธ๐Ÿ—ซ Topic: Talking About Other People (Lesson Only)

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2022-02-20ใƒป 2573

Learn English with Bob the Canadian channel


As you learn English and participate in conversations, you'll notice that people sometimes talk about other people. In this free English lesson you'll learn how to describe these types of conversations. People have a lot of different ways to talk about each other. At times people say nice, kind things about other people. Sometimes they say mean or bad things. As you continue to learn English, you'll want to know how to describe these conversations. In this free English class you'll learn words and phrases like: to gossip, to throw shade, to complain, to whine, to be a reference, to stab someone in the back, to speak highly of, to put someone down, to sing someone's praises, and many more! I hope this free English class was helpful and I hope you were able to learn some new English words and phrases that you can use in your next English conversation! Have a great day! โŒ› Remember: Always watch the video three times. Twice today with English subtitles on, and once tomorrow with the English subtitles off. This will reinforce the English you have learned! -- โœ… Support Me and Get These Members Only Perks: ๐Ÿ˜€๐Ÿ’ฒ If you would like to become a member of my channel here is the link: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZJJTxA36ZPNTJ1WFIByaeA/join Becoming a member at every level has these benefits and perks: 1) For 10 minutes during each live stream you will be able to participate in the "Members Only" chat. 2) A cool crown beside your name during live streams and when making comments on videos. 3) Your name in green during live stream lesson chat. 4) You will have access to a members only video each Wednesday called, "Wednesdays with Bob". These are behind the scenes bonus videos with full English transcripts for your listening practice. 5) A full transcript for every Tuesday video. โœ… Join now to receive these perks: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZJJTxA36ZPNTJ1WFIByaeA/join I really appreciate those you that have chosen to thank me in this way! Please only support me if you can afford it! If you prefer to support me via Patreon, here is a link to that page: https://www.patreon.com/bobthecanadian Thank you for your generosity! -- โœ…SEND ME A POSTCARD: Bob the Canadian P.O. Box 419 Smithville, Ontario Canada L0R2A0 -- TAKE YOUR ENGLISH CONVERSATIONS TO THE NEXT LEVEL: โœ…Talk to a real English tutor / teacher at preply: http://tracking.preply.com/SH2X (This is an affiliate, signing up for this service helps support my channel). -- FOLLOW ME: โœ… I have a second Youtube channel right here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCmW5tmKIBrryNf5n-_A6Fmw โœ… P.S. If you are interested I have created a podcast of my shorter English lessons. It is right here: https://www.buzzsprout.com/1310116 -- #englishlesson #learnenglish #bobthecanadian **Note: All images used under: CC0 License โœ“ Free for personal and commercial use โœ“ No attribution required From pexels.com or pixabay.com

Instruction

Double-click on the English captions to play the video from there.

00:00
Well hello and welcome to this English lesson where I'm going
ใ“ใ‚“ใซใกใฏใ€ใ“ใฎ ่‹ฑ่ชžใฎใƒฌใƒƒใ‚นใƒณใธใ‚ˆใ†ใ“ใใ€‚ใ“ใ“ใงใฏ
00:03
to talk about how to talk about other people or more
ใ€ไป–ใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ๆ–นๆณ•ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ— ใพใ™ใ€‚
00:07
specifically I'm going to talk about the types of ways you can
ๅ…ทไฝ“็š„ใซใฏ
00:12
talk about other people. I think you'll get a good
ใ€ไป–ใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ๆ–นๆณ•ใฎ็จฎ้กžใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใƒฌใƒƒใ‚นใƒณใซ ๅ…ฅใ‚‹ใจใ€ใ‚ˆใ็†่งฃใงใใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™
00:15
understanding as we get into the lesson. Um there are
ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅˆฅใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ไผš่ฉฑ
00:18
obviously a lot of ways to have a conversation where you talk
ใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใฏๆ˜Žใ‚‰ใ‹ใซใŸใใ•ใ‚“ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™
00:23
about a different person. And there are many many different
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใชไผš่ฉฑ ใซใฏๅคšใใฎ็•ฐใชใ‚‹
00:26
types of conversations like that. Um it might sound like a
ใ‚ฟใ‚คใƒ—ใŒใ‚ใ‚Š ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใƒฉใƒณใƒ€ใƒ ใชใƒˆใƒ”ใƒƒใ‚ฏใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใซ่žใ“ใˆใ‚‹ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
00:31
random topic. It might sound like a very specific topic. But
ใ€‚ ้žๅธธใซๅ…ทไฝ“็š„ใชใƒˆใƒ”ใƒƒใ‚ฏใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใซ่žใ“ใˆใ‚‹ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—
00:35
all of the 35 or so words actually let me see here. Maybe
ใ€35ใ‹ใใ“ใ‚‰ใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใฎใ™ในใฆใŒ ๅฎŸ้š›ใซ็งใซใ“ใ“ใง่ฆ‹ใ•ใ›ใฆใใ‚Œใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใŸใถใ‚“
00:39
30 words are very very common in English. You'll hear these
30่ชžใฏ่‹ฑ่ชžใง้žๅธธใซไธ€่ˆฌ็š„ ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใƒ‹ใƒฅใƒผใ‚นใงใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ‚’่žใใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
00:43
words on the news. You'll hear these words in conversations.
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ไผš่ฉฑใฎไธญใงใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ‚’่žใใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚
00:47
To gossip. So when you gossip about someone else. It means
ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใซใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ†ใ‚ใ•่ฉฑใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ
00:52
you talk about them and you say things about them that might be
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ ใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ
00:57
true and might not be true. Gossip as a noun is considered
็œŸๅฎŸใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใชใ„ใ—็œŸๅฎŸใงใชใ„ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅ่ฉžใจใ—ใฆใฎใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—
01:01
not a very polite thing. When you gossip with someone. Notice
ใฏใ€ใ‚ใพใ‚Š็คผๅ„€ๆญฃใ—ใ„ใ‚‚ใฎใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่€ƒใˆใ‚‰ใ‚Œใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใจใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€‚
01:06
I can say those two people are gossiping. Or that person was
็งใฏใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฎ2ไบบใŒใ†ใ‚ใ•่ฉฑใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซๆณจๆ„ใ—ใฆใใ ใ•ใ„ ใ€‚ ใพใŸใฏใใฎไบบใฏ
01:11
just spreading gossip. I can use it as a verb and then as a
ใŸใ ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใฆใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ ๅ‹•่ฉžใจใ—ใฆใ€ใใ—ใฆๅ่ฉžใจใ—ใฆไฝฟใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™
01:14
noun. But gossip is when you just simply say did you hear
ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใจใฏใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ ใซใคใ„ใฆ่žใ„ใŸใจๅ˜็ด”ใซ่จ€ใ†ใจใ
01:17
about Joe? Joe lost his job. Joe was I mean and it makes
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ๅคฑใฃใŸใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ็งใŒ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใŸใฎ
01:21
sense you know because like I totally don't think he's a good
ใงใ™ใŒใ€็งใจๅŒใ˜ใ‚ˆใ†ใซๅฝผใฏ่‰ฏใ„ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใ ใจใฏใพใฃใŸใๆ€ใ‚ใชใ„ใฎใงใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใฏ็†ใซใ‹ใชใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™
01:24
worker. So when you gossip about someone you talk about
ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ†ใ‚ใ•่ฉฑใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ
01:28
something that's happened in their life. Not with them. So
ใฏ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎไบบ็”Ÿใง่ตทใ“ใฃใŸใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใจไธ€็ท’ใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰
01:33
if we're if we're talking about gossip Joe is over here and
ใ€ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใชใ‚‰ใ€ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ
01:37
then I'm over here with another person talking about Joe saying
ใ“ใ“ใซใ„ใฆใ€ๅˆฅใฎ ไบบใŒใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใฆ
01:42
things like oh Joe I'm not surprised Joe lost his job
ใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใงใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ๅ‰ๅ›žใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจไธ€็ท’ใซๅƒใ„ใŸใฎใง ใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ๅคฑใฃใŸใฎใฏ้ฉšใใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
01:46
because last time I worked with Joe he just sat around all the
ๅฝผใฏใ„ใคใ‚‚ๅบงใฃใฆ
01:50
time. That would be saying mean things about someone or
ใ„ใŸใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚„ใ†ใ‚ใ•่ฉฑใซใคใ„ใฆใฎๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
01:53
gossiping. And sometimes people just tell secrets. Um they'll
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆๆ™‚ใ€…ไบบใ€…ใฏ ใŸใ ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ
01:58
trust someone So if I was to tell Brent speak English with
่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไฟก้ ผใ™ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰็งใŒ ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใซใ“ใฎ็”ทใจ่‹ฑ่ชžใ‚’่ฉฑใ™ใ‚ˆใ†ใซ่จ€ใ†ใจใ—ใŸใ‚‰
02:04
this guy. If I was to tell Brent a secret via email. And
ใ€‚ ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใซใƒกใƒผใƒซใง็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ไผใˆใ‚‹ใจใ—ใŸใ‚‰ใ€‚
02:08
then if Brent was to tell everyone in the chat the secret
ใใ—ใฆใ€ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใŒใƒใƒฃใƒƒใƒˆใฎๅ…จๅ“กใซ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๅ‘Šใ’ใ‚‹ใจใ—ใŸใ‚‰ใ€ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใฏ ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’
02:11
Brent would be telling a secret. When you tell a secret
ๅ‘Šใ’ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๅ‘Šใ’ใ‚‹ใจใใ€
02:14
or when you reveal a secret of someone it's not a very nice
ใพใŸใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๆ˜Žใ‹ใ™ใจใใ€ ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใพใ‚Š่‰ฏใ„
02:18
thing to do. I know a long time ago I told a friend a secret
ใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ็งใฏใšใฃใจ ๅ‰ใซๅ‹ไบบใซ็ง˜ๅฏ†
02:22
and I said keep this secret. And then that friend later went
ใ‚’่ฉฑใ—ใ€ใ“ใฎ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๅฎˆใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใใฎๅ‹ไบบใฏๅพŒใง่กŒใฃใฆ
02:27
and told the secret to other people. That was not very very
ใ€ไป–ใฎไบบใ€…ใซ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’่ฉฑใ—ใพใ—ใŸ ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใพใ‚Š่‰ฏใใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใงใ—ใŸ
02:31
nice. You can talk behind someone's back. This is similar
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใง่ฉฑใ™ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ
02:35
to gossip but it's a little meaner I think when you talk
ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใซไผผใฆใ„ใพใ™ใŒใ€ๅฐ‘ใ— ๆ„ๅœฐๆ‚ชใงใ™ใ€‚
02:38
behind someone's back it means that they cannot hear the
่ชฐใ‹ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใง่ฉฑใ™ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œ ใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒไผš่ฉฑใ‚’่žใใ“ใจใŒใงใใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ™ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™
02:42
conversation. It means that you're saying something to
ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไป–ใฎไบบใซไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใฆ
02:46
another person and the person you're talking about can't hear
ใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ไบบใŒใ‚ใชใŸใฎๅฃฐใ‚’่žใใ“ใจใŒใงใใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—
02:50
you. That sounded very complicated. If you look at
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ้žๅธธใซ่ค‡้›‘ใซ่žใ“ใˆใพใ—ใŸ ใ€‚
02:53
this picture you can see that there are some people in the
ใ“ใฎๅ†™็œŸใ‚’่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใจ ใ€ๅปŠไธ‹ใซไผš่ฉฑใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ไบบใŒใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ™
02:57
hallway having a conversation. And I'm imagining Talking about
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใฏ้ƒจๅฑ‹ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๆƒณๅƒ
03:01
someone in the room and that person in the room can't hear
ใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€ใใ—ใฆ้ƒจๅฑ‹ใฎใใฎ ไบบใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎๅฃฐใ‚’่žใใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ›ใ‚“
03:05
them. So we would say that they are talking behind that
ใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ ใฏใใฎไบบใฎๅพŒใ‚ใง่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใˆ
03:08
person's back. Talking behind their back. The opposite of
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใง่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ€‚ ใ‚‚ใกใ‚ใ‚“ๅๅฏพใฏ
03:14
course would be to say something to someone's face.
ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎ้ก”ใซไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใงใ™ใ€‚
03:17
Sometimes you're annoyed with someone and so you tell a
ๆ™‚ใ€…ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใซใ‚คใƒฉใ‚คใƒฉใ—ใฆ ใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใง
03:20
friend that you're annoyed with them. But sometimes you're so
ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใ‚คใƒฉใ‚คใƒฉใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๅ‹้”ใซ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ๆ™‚ใ€…ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใจใฆใ‚‚
03:23
annoyed. You just tell them to their face. You go right up to
ใ‚คใƒฉใ‚คใƒฉใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใซ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎ้ก”ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ ใ‘ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎใจใ“ใ‚ใซ่กŒใใ€
03:27
them and you say Joe you're not a good worker. Or Joe I don't
ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่‰ฏใ„ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่จ€ใ„ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใพใŸใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ็งใฏ
03:31
like working with you. That would be saying something to
ใ‚ใชใŸใจไธ€็ท’ใซๅƒใใฎใŒๅฅฝใใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œ ใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ้ก”ใซไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
03:34
someone's face. Or telling them to their face. There's a few
ใ€‚ ใพใŸใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ ใซๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎ้ก”ใซ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใฎใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บใซใฏใ„ใใคใ‹ใฎใƒใƒชใ‚จใƒผใ‚ทใƒงใƒณใŒใ‚ใ‚Š
03:38
variations on that phrase. So technically this doesn't belong
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆŠ€่ก“็š„ใซใฏใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏไป–ใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ๆ–นๆณ•
03:43
in this lesson because it's not a way to talk about other
ใงใฏใชใ„ใŸใ‚ใ€ใ“ใฎใƒฌใƒƒใ‚นใƒณใซใฏๅซใพใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
03:46
people. It's a way to tell someone directly something that
ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏใ€
03:50
you don't like about what they're doing or what they have
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚„ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ
03:54
said. And then of course there's just to lie. When you
่จ€ใฃใŸใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆใ‚ใชใŸใŒๆฐ—ใซๅ…ฅใ‚‰ใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่ชฐใ‹ใซ็›ดๆŽฅไผใˆใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆ ใ‚‚ใกใ‚ใ‚“ใ€ใ†ใใ‚’ใคใใ ใ‘ใงใ™ใ€‚
03:58
lie about someone you say something that isn't true. This
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใจใใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ ใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œ
04:02
is probably the meanest and most basic form of talking
ใฏใŠใใ‚‰ใใ€ไป–ใฎไบบ ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ๆœ€ใ‚‚ๅ‘ๅŠฃใงๆœ€ใ‚‚ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใชๅฝขๅผใงใ™
04:06
about another person. If you say let's say Joe is a good
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ ่จ€ใ†ใชใ‚‰ใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ่‰ฏใ„ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใ ใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
04:10
worker. And you work with Joe and you tell someone that Joe
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจไธ€็ท’ใซๅƒใใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ
04:14
isn't a good worker. You are telling a lie. Not a very kind
ใฏ่‰ฏใ„ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่ชฐใ‹ใซ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ใ†ใใ‚’ใคใ„ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใจใฆใ‚‚่ฆชๅˆ‡
04:18
or polite thing to do. Uh lying about someone else or making up
ใงใ‚‚็คผๅ„€ๆญฃใ—ใ„ใ“ใจใงใ‚‚ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ ไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใ„ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ€ใพใŸใฏใใ‚Œใ‚’ๅˆฅ
04:23
something about someone that's another way to say it. It's
ใฎ่จ€ใ„ๆ–นใง่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ไฝœใ‚ŠไธŠใ’ใฆ ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œ
04:26
just not kind. That's why this megaphone says untruths. So as
ใฏ่ฆชๅˆ‡ใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใใฎใŸใ‚ใ€ใ“ใฎ ใƒกใ‚ฌใƒ›ใƒณใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰
04:31
he speaks into the megaphone lies are coming out the other
ๅฝผใŒใƒกใ‚ฌใƒ›ใƒณใซ่ฉฑใ—ใ‹ใ‘ใ‚‹ใจ ใ€ใ‚‚ใ†ไธ€ๆ–นใฎ็ซฏใซๅ˜˜ใŒๅ‡บใฆใ
04:35
end. To spread rumours. So here's an interesting one
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใง
04:39
because it's similar to talking behind someone's back. Um it's
่ฉฑใ™ใฎใซไผผใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใงใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ่ˆˆๅ‘ณๆทฑใ„ใ‚‚ใฎ ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ†ใƒผใ‚“
04:44
similar in a way to gossiping. Um but when you spread rumours
ใ€ใ†ใ‚ใ•่ฉฑใซไผผใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ
04:49
sometimes you say something about someone and you
ๆ™‚ใ€…่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ„ ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ
04:53
exaggerate the truth or you tell lies when you spread
ใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใ‚’่ช‡ๅผตใ—ใŸใ‚Š ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใŸใจใใซๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใ„ใŸใ‚Šใ—ใพใ™
04:57
rumours. So let's say Joe. Joe's the example for all of
ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใงใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ
05:03
these today. Let's say Joe got home from work really really
ใ€ไปŠๆ—ฅใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใ™ในใฆใฎไพ‹ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒ ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ้…ใไป•ไบ‹ใ‹ใ‚‰ๅฎถใซๅธฐใฃใŸใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
05:07
late. You could say oh I think Joe was like do something he
ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใ€ๅฝผ
05:13
wasn't supposed to do. Joe is home late for work. So there's
ใŒใ™ใ‚‹ใฏใšใฎใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ‚‚ใฎใ ใฃใŸใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ ไป•ไบ‹ใซ้…ใ‚Œใฆๅฎถใซใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰
05:17
a little bit of truth there that Joe is home late for work.
ใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒไป•ไบ‹ใซ้…ใ‚Œใฆๅธฐๅฎ…ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใ„ใ†็œŸๅฎŸใŒๅฐ‘ใ—ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚
05:20
But then you might add a lie to it. So you might tell someone
ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใใ‚Œใซๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ› ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ
05:23
else something about Joe that's true and add a bit of a lie.
ไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใซใคใ„ใฆ็œŸๅฎŸใงใ‚ใ‚‹ไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่ฉฑใ— ใ€ๅฐ‘ใ—ๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
05:27
But when you spread rumours they're very negative you're
ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ้žๅธธใซๅฆๅฎš็š„ใงใ™ใ€‚ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ่ชฐใ‹
05:32
spreading negative things about someone and it's not a very
ใซใคใ„ใฆๅฆๅฎš็š„ใชใ“ใจใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใฆใ„ใพใ™ ใ€ใใ—ใฆใใ‚Œใฏใจใฆใ‚‚
05:35
kind thing to do. To criticize. So when you criticize someone
่ฆชๅˆ‡ใชใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ่ฒฌใ‚ใ‚‹ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€่ชฐใ‹
05:40
you can criticize someone in a Like I could talk to someone
ใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใฏใ€็งใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใจ่ฉฑใ—ใ€ๆ‰นๅˆคใ—ใฆๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใ
05:46
and be critical and criticize them. But I could also be
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ไป–ใฎไบบใจ่ฉฑใ—
05:50
critical of someone when I'm talking about them with a
ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใฏใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™
05:53
different person. So I could say to a colleague at work you
ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ ใ€่ทๅ ดใฎๅŒๅƒšใซ
05:57
know I just don't like the way the boss ran that meeting. I
ใ€ไธŠๅธใŒใใฎไผš่ญฐใ‚’้‹ๅ–ถใ™ใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใŒๅฅฝใใงใฏใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚
06:00
don't like that the meeting started late. Uh there was no
ไผš่ญฐใŒ้…ใๅง‹ใพใฃใŸใฎใฏๅฅฝใใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ไผš่ญฐใฎ่ญฐ้กŒใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“
06:03
agenda for the meeting. So I am criticizing my boss as I talk
ใงใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ๅŒๅƒš ใจ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใซไธŠๅธใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆคใ—ใฆใ„
06:09
to a colleague. So again when you criticize it's a way to
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใใ†ใ™ใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใ™ใ€ใใ‚Œ
06:14
yeah it's a way to complain. It's a but I'm going to talk
ใฏไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใ†ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏใงใ™ใŒใ€
06:19
about complain later. Um but it's a negative conversation
ๅพŒใงๆ–‡ๅฅใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใงใ‚‚ใใ‚Œ
06:23
about another person. Uh and then again you can criticize
ใฏไป–ใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆใฎๅฆๅฎš็š„ใชไผš่ฉฑใงใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ ใใ‚Œใ‹ใ‚‰ใพใŸใ‚ใชใŸใฏ
06:28
someone to their face. Okay you can do that as well. To throw
่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎ้ก”ใซๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ•ใฆใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ ใ‚‚ใใ‚Œใ‚’่กŒใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆ—ฅ้™ฐใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‚‹
06:33
shade. So this is a relatively new term. And this is something
ใ€‚ ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏๆฏ”่ผƒ็š„ ๆ–ฐใ—ใ„็”จ่ชžใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ
06:37
that mostly we hear about celebrities doing. Sometimes a
ไธปใซ ๆœ‰ๅไบบใŒใ‚„ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่žใ„ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‚‹
06:42
celebrity will say something about another celebrity. And
ๆœ‰ๅไบบใŒๅˆฅใฎๆœ‰ๅไบบใซใคใ„ใฆไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ ใ€‚
06:46
it's and it's a very negative thing and we we now call that
ใใ—ใฆใใ‚Œใฏ้žๅธธใซใƒใ‚ฌใƒ†ใ‚ฃใƒ– ใชใ“ใจใงใ‚ใ‚Šใ€็งใŸใกใฏไปŠใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ‚นใƒญใƒผใ‚คใƒณใ‚ฐใ‚ทใ‚งใƒผใƒ‰ใจๅ‘ผใ‚“ใงใ„
06:50
throwing shade. I don't want to get into the details but right
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ่ฉณ็ดฐใซใฏ่งฆใ‚ŒใŸใใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ› ใ‚“ใŒใ€
06:53
now Kanye and Pete Kanye's throwing some shade. Uh at Pete
ไปŠใฏใ‚ซใƒ‹ใ‚จใจใƒ”ใƒผใƒˆใ‚ซใƒ‹ใ‚จใŒ ๆ—ฅ้™ฐใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใƒ”ใƒผใƒˆ
06:58
on Pete. I actually don't know what you would say. But Kanye's
ใ‚ชใƒณใƒ”ใƒผใƒˆใงใ€‚ ็งใฏๅฎŸ้š›ใซ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไฝ•ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ซใƒ‹ใ‚จใฏ
07:01
definitely throwing shade right now. If you check the news
ไปŠ้–“้•ใ„ใชใๆ—ฅ้™ฐใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใฆ ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใƒ‹ใƒฅใƒผใ‚นใ‚’ใƒใ‚งใƒƒใ‚ฏใ™ใ‚‹
07:04
there's a little bit of a a Twitter war or an Instagram war
07:09
between Kanye and his ex-wife and Pete Davidson. So I'll let
ใจใ€ใ‚ซใƒ‹ใ‚จใจๅฝผใฎๅ…ƒๅฆป ใจใƒ”ใƒผใƒˆใƒปใƒ‡ใ‚คใƒดใ‚ฃใƒƒใƒ‰ใ‚ฝใƒณใฎ้–“ใงใƒ„ใ‚คใƒƒใ‚ฟใƒผๆˆฆไบ‰ใพใŸใฏใ‚คใƒณใ‚นใ‚ฟใ‚ฐใƒฉใƒ ๆˆฆไบ‰ใŒๅฐ‘ใ—ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚
07:15
you find the details but to throw shade means it doesn't
่ฉณ็ดฐใ‚’่ชฌๆ˜Žใ—ใพใ™ใŒใ€ ๆ—ฅ้™ฐใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‚‹ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใฏ
07:19
have to be a celebrity but we mostly hear this term when you
ใ€ๆœ‰ๅไบบใงใ‚ใ‚‹ๅฟ…่ฆใฏใชใ„ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใงใ™ใŒใ€ๆœ‰ๅไบบใŒๅˆฅใฎๆœ‰ๅไบบใซ ๆ—ฅ้™ฐใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‚‹ใจใ„ใ†ๆœ‰ๅไบบใฎใƒ‹ใƒฅใƒผใ‚นใ‚’่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใจใ€ใ“ใฎ็”จ่ชžใŒใ‚ˆใ่€ณใซใ—ใพใ™
07:22
watch the news about celebrities where a celebrity
07:25
will throw shade on another celebrity. So they'll say
ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ๆœ‰ๅไบบใซใคใ„ใฆ
07:28
something negative or mean or even untrue about a celebrity
ๅฆๅฎš็š„ใพใŸใฏๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ€ ใ‚ใ‚‹ใ„ใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
07:33
that they know. To whisper So you can whisper about someone.
ใ€‚ ใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใใŸใ‚ใซ ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚
07:39
Um usually we hear this term in a negative sense like there
ใˆใˆใจใ€็งใŸใกใฏ้€šๅธธ
07:42
were whispers about this person doing something. And basically
ใ€ใ“ใฎไบบ ใŒไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใๅฃฐใŒใ‚ใฃใŸใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ€ๅฆๅฎš็š„ใชๆ„ๅ‘ณใงใ“ใฎ็”จ่ชžใ‚’่žใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆๅŸบๆœฌ็š„
07:46
it means that I guess it's similar to talking behind
ใซใฏใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎ ๅพŒใ‚ใง่ฉฑใ™ใฎใจไผผใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„
07:50
someone's back. But when you whisper about someone you
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใใจใใ€
07:54
you're basically like did you hear about Joe? Joe got home
ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใซใคใ„ใฆ่žใ„ใŸใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ‚‚ใฎใงใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ
07:57
from work late because he went and he I'm trying to think of
ไป•ไบ‹ใ‹ใ‚‰้…ใๅธฐๅฎ…ใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ๅฝผใฏ่กŒใฃใŸใฎใงใ€ ็งใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒใ—ใŸใƒใ‚ฌใƒ†ใ‚ฃใƒ–ใชใ“ใจใ‚’่€ƒใˆใ‚ˆใ†ใจใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™
08:01
something negative that Joe did. What would be oh yeah. Joe
ใ€‚ ใใ†ใใ†ไฝ•ใ ใ‚ใ†ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ
08:04
went to the casino after work and spent all his money. So I
ใฏไป•ไบ‹ใฎๅพŒใซใ‚ซใ‚ธใƒŽใซ่กŒใใ€ ๅฝผใฎใ™ในใฆใฎใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’ไฝฟใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€
08:08
so if you hear two people talking quietly about someone
2ไบบ ใŒไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆ้™ใ‹ใซ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใ‚’่žใ„
08:12
else we would that they are whispering about them. And to
ใŸใ‚‰ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใ„ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€
08:17
tell half truths. I mentioned this in the lesson I did on
ๅŠๅˆ†ใฎ็œŸๅฎŸใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใŸใ‚ใซใ€‚ ็ง ใฏ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใจๅ˜˜ใซใคใ„ใฆ่กŒใฃใŸใƒฌใƒƒใ‚นใƒณใงใ“ใ‚Œใซใคใ„ใฆ่จ€ๅŠใ—ใพใ—ใŸ
08:20
secrets and lies. A half truth is when you tell something
ใ€‚ ๅŠ็ซฏใช็œŸๅฎŸ ใฏใ€
08:23
that's partly true. Uh but maybe you enhance it a little
้ƒจๅˆ†็š„ใซ็œŸๅฎŸใงใ‚ใ‚‹ไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใใงใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ ๅคšๅˆ†ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใใ‚Œใ‚’ๅฐ‘ใ—ๅผทๅŒ–ใ—
08:27
bit. So if you so maybe Joe someone's stole some money at
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ†ใชใ‚‰ๅคšๅˆ†ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ ่ชฐใ‹ใŒไป•ไบ‹ใงใ„ใใ‚‰ใ‹ใฎใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’็›—ใ‚“ใ 
08:33
work. And if you tell a half truth you would say you know
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅŠ็ซฏใช ็œŸๅฎŸใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใชใ‚‰ใฐใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒ้•ทใ„้–“ใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’็›—ใ‚“ใงใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
08:37
Joe he's been stealing money for a long time. So you know he
ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅฝผใŒใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’็›—ใ‚“ใ ใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„
08:41
stole money. But you're kind of exaggerating the story. You
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ่ฉฑใ‚’่ช‡ๅผตใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ‚‚ใฎใงใ™ ใ€‚
08:45
don't know if he stole money for a long time but you add a
ๅฝผใŒ้•ทใ„้–“ใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’็›—ใ‚“ใ ใ‹ใฉใ†ใ‹ใฏใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“
08:49
little bit to the story. Well finally here's a phrase that's
ใŒใ€่ฉฑใซๅฐ‘ใ—่ฟฝๅŠ ใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆœ€ๅพŒใซใ€
08:54
not negative. I wanted to make sure I had a balance of
ใ“ใ‚Œใฏๅฆๅฎš็š„ใงใฏใชใ„ใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บใงใ™ใ€‚ ใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บ ใฎใƒใƒฉใƒณใ‚นใŒๅ–ใ‚Œใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’็ขบ่ชใ—ใŸใ‹ใฃใŸใฎ
08:57
phrases. So we're going to talk about the phrase to speak
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใงใ€็งใŸใกใฏ้ซ˜ใ ่ฉฑใ™ใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Š
09:00
highly of. When you speak highly of someone it means that
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’้ซ˜ใ่ฉ•ไพกใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ
09:05
you like them and you appreciate what they're doing.
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’ๅฅฝใใงใ€ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซๆ„Ÿ่ฌใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚
09:08
A great example would be this. Speak English with this guy.
่‰ฏใ„ไพ‹ใฏใ“ใ‚Œใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใ“ใฎ็”ทใจ่‹ฑ่ชžใ‚’่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚
09:12
His name is Brent. Has a YouTube channel. And I speak
ๅฝผใฎๅๅ‰ใฏใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใงใ™ใ€‚ YouTubeใƒใƒฃใƒณใƒใƒซใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ๅฝผใฎใƒใƒฃใƒณใƒใƒซใ‚’ไป–ใฎไบบใซ่ฉฑใ™
09:15
very highly of him when I mention his channel to other
ใจใใ€็งใฏๅฝผใ‚’้žๅธธใซ้ซ˜ใ่ฉ•ไพกใ—ใฆใ„
09:18
people. Because I think he's doing good work. When you speak
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผใฏ ่‰ฏใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸ
09:21
high of someone it means you say very nice things and very
ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใฎใ“ใจใ‚’้ซ˜ใ่ฉฑใ™ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ ใจใฆใ‚‚ใ„ใ„ใ“ใจใจใจใฆใ‚‚
09:26
kind things about them. So it's always nice if you know someone
่ฆชๅˆ‡ใชใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰
09:31
who's a hard worker at work and then when you're having a
ใ€ไธ€็”Ÿๆ‡ธๅ‘ฝๅƒใ„ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ไบบใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ ใฆใ€ไผš่ฉฑใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใซ
09:34
conversation and their name comes up then you say nice
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎๅๅ‰ ใŒๅ‡บใฆใ
09:38
things about them we would say that you are speaking highly of
ใŸใ‚‰ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆใ„ใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใ€็งใŸใกใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’ ้ซ˜ใ่ฉ•ไพกใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใˆ
09:41
them. To recommend. When you recommend someone it means that
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใŠๅ‹งใ‚ใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๆŽจ่–ฆใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ
09:46
you say they'll be good for a certain thing. Let's use Joe as
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ็‰นๅฎšใฎใ“ใจใซ่‰ฏใ„ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ไพ‹ใจใ—ใฆใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’ไฝฟ็”จใ—ใฆใฟใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
09:51
an example. Let's say my school needed a new teacher. And I
ใ€‚ ็งใฎๅญฆๆ กใซ ๆ–ฐใ—ใ„ๅ…ˆ็”ŸใŒๅฟ…่ฆใ ใฃใŸใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็ง
09:56
knew that Joe was a good teacher and he didn't have a
ใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒ่‰ฏใ„ ๅ…ˆ็”Ÿใงใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ๅฝผใซใฏไป•ไบ‹ใŒใชใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใพใ—ใŸ
09:59
job. I could recommend Joe to my principal. I could go to the
ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’ๆ ก้•ทใซๅ‹งใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใ ใพใ™ใ€‚
10:03
principal and say I have a friend named Joe. He's a really
ๆ ก้•ทใฎใจใ“ใ‚ใซ่กŒใฃใฆใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจใ„ใ†ๅๅ‰ใฎๅ‹้”ใŒใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ ใ€‚ ๅฝผใฏๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ
10:06
good teacher and he doesn't have a job right now. So when
่‰ฏใ„ๅ…ˆ็”Ÿใงใ€ ไปŠใฏไป•ไบ‹ใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰
10:08
you say that someone's good at something. Or when you say that
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใŒไฝ•ใ‹ใŒๅพ—ๆ„ใ ใจ่จ€ใ†ใจใ ใ€‚ ใพใŸใฏใ€
10:12
something they're doing is really good. It it basically
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒ ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ่‰ฏใ„ใจ่จ€ใ†ใจใใ€‚ ใใ‚ŒใฏๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซ
10:15
means you're recommending them. So again we'll use Brett's
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใ‚’ๆŽจ่–ฆใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใ“ใ“ใงใ‚‚ใ€ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒƒใƒˆใŒ
10:20
probably getting tired be talking about his channel. But
่‡ชๅˆ†ใฎใƒใƒฃใƒณใƒใƒซใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใฎใซ้ฃฝใ้ฃฝใใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใ‚’ๅˆฉ็”จใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—
10:23
speak English with this guy. I highly recommend you visit his
ใ€ใ“ใฎ็”ทใจ่‹ฑ่ชžใ‚’่ฉฑใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ„ใคใ‹ๅฝผใฎใƒใƒฃใƒณใƒใƒซใซใ‚ขใ‚ฏใ‚ปใ‚นใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๅผทใใŠๅ‹งใ‚ใ—
10:27
channel at some point. He teaches English like I do. Uh
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผ ใฏ็งใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใซ่‹ฑ่ชžใ‚’ๆ•™ใˆใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจ
10:30
and he has done a few videos lately where he's on in
ใ€ๅฝผใฏๆœ€่ฟ‘ใ€็ฑณๅ›ฝใฎใ•ใพใ–ใพใชๅœฐๅŸŸใงๅฝผใŒๅ‡บๆผ”ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ„ใใคใ‹ใฎใƒ“ใƒ‡ใ‚ชใ‚’ๅˆถไฝœ ใ—ใพใ—ใŸ
10:34
different parts of the United States. So I recommend that you
ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰็งใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใ‚’่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ใŠๅ‹งใ‚ใ—ใพใ™
10:37
watch them. So that means I like his videos. I like the
ใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€็ง ใฏๅฝผใฎใƒ“ใƒ‡ใ‚ชใŒๅฅฝใใ ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใงใ™ใ€‚ ็งใฏ
10:41
work he's doing. And I like it so much. I will tell other
ๅฝผใฎไป•ไบ‹ใŒๅฅฝใใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใฏใใ‚ŒใŒ ใจใฆใ‚‚ๅฅฝใใงใ™ใ€‚ ็งใฏไป–ใฎ
10:44
people that they should go watch them. To vouch for. So
ไบบใซๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’่ฆ‹ใซ่กŒใในใใ ใจ่จ€ใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ไฟ่จผใ™ใ‚‹ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰
10:49
here's another way of recommending but it's it really
ใ“ใ“ใซๅˆฅใฎๆŽจๅฅจๆ–นๆณ•ใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ ใŒใ€ใใ‚Œใฏๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ
10:54
works yeah it means you're saying you can trust someone if
ใ†ใพใใ„ใใพใ™ใˆใˆใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไฟ่จผ ใ™ใ‚Œใฐ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไฟก้ ผใงใใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใฃ
10:59
you vouch for someone it means you know them really really
ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใใ‚Œใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซๅคงไธˆๅคซใ ใจ็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™
11:03
well okay so in this picture it says Joe Joe is a hard worker
11:08
if I worked with Joe for a long time and I knew Joe was a very
ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจใฏ้•ทใ„้–“ไธ€็ท’ใซๅƒใ„ใฆใ„ใพใ—ใŸ ใŒใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใจใฆใ‚‚
11:12
good worker and if someone said I'm thinking of hiring Joe is
ๅ„ช็ง€ใชๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใงใ‚ใ‚Šใ€่ชฐใ‹ใŒ ็งใŒใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’้›‡ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’่€ƒใˆใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚‰ใ€
11:17
he a hard worker. I could say yeah I'll vouch for him. I
ๅฝผใฏๅ‹คๅ‹‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใ€็งใฏๅฝผใ‚’ไฟ่จผใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ็ง
11:20
worked with him for a long time. He's a really really good
ใฏๅฝผใจ้•ทใ„้–“ไธ€็ท’ใซๅƒใ„ ใŸใ€‚ ๅฝผใฏๆœฌๅฝ“ใซๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ่‰ฏใ„
11:23
worker. So when you vouch for someone it means that you
ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไฟ่จผ ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใฏใ€
11:27
publicly say or in a conversation you say that you
ๅ…ฌใซ่จ€ใ†ใ‹ใ€ ไผš่ฉฑใฎไธญใงใ€
11:31
think that person is good at something okay sometimes my
ใใฎไบบใฏๅคงไธˆๅคซใ ใจๆ€ใ†ใจ่จ€ใ† ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ๆ™‚ใ€…็งใฎ
11:36
students will apply for a job and then the company will call
ๅญฆ็”ŸใŒไป•ไบ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿ ใ—ใ€ไผš็คพใŒ็งใซ้›ป่ฉฑใ—
11:41
me and say is this student a good worker and then I'll vouch
ใฆใ€ใ“ใฎๅญฆ็”Ÿใฏ่‰ฏใ„ใจ่จ€ใ„ใพใ™ ๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใใ—ใฆใใ‚Œใ‹ใ‚‰็งใฏ
11:44
for them I'll say yes absolutely when I had them in
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎใŸใ‚ใซไฟ่จผใ—ใพใ™็งใŒใ‚ฏใƒฉใ‚นใง ๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใŸใจใ็งใฏ็ตถๅฏพใซใใ†่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
11:47
class they were a hard worker they did a great job. Do trash
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใŸๅ‹คๅ‹‰ใงใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใ‚ดใƒŸใฎ
11:52
talk. I don't know why. This picture cracks me up because
่ฉฑใ‚’ใ—ใชใ•ใ„ใ€‚ ็†็”ฑใฏใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ“ใฎ ๅ†™็œŸใฏ
11:56
it's a couple of older people. Um but trash talk is when you
ใ€ๆ•ฐไบบใฎ้ซ˜้ฝข่€…ใงใ‚ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใ€็งใ‚’ใฒใฉใๅ‚ทใคใ‘ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ‚ดใƒŸใฎ่ฉฑใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒ
12:00
say mean things about people. Most of you'll hear trash talk
ไบบใ€…ใซใคใ„ใฆใฎๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใใงใ™ใ€‚ ใปใจใ‚“ใฉใฎไบบใฏ
12:04
or trash talk will happen when people are playing sports. If
ใ€ไบบใ€…ใŒใ‚นใƒใƒผใƒ„ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใซใƒˆใƒฉใƒƒใ‚ทใƒฅใƒˆใƒผใ‚ฏใ‚„ใƒˆใƒฉใƒƒใ‚ทใƒฅใƒˆใƒผใ‚ฏใŒ่ตทใ“ใ‚‹ใฎใ‚’่žใใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚
12:08
you watch football or soccer or basketball those are sports
ใ‚ตใƒƒใ‚ซใƒผใ€ใ‚ตใƒƒใ‚ซใƒผใ€ใƒใ‚นใ‚ฑใƒƒใƒˆใƒœใƒผใƒซใ‚’่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ใจใ€ ใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฏใ‚นใƒใƒผใƒ„
12:12
where sometimes the players walk by each other and they'll
ใงใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ใƒ—ใƒฌใƒผใƒคใƒผ ใŒใŠไบ’ใ„ใซๆญฉใ„ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏๅฝผใ‚‰
12:16
say something really mean about them. Like you have a big nose.
ใซใคใ„ใฆๆœฌๅฝ“ใซๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅคงใใช้ผปใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ€‚
12:19
Actually they say meaner things than that. But when you trash
ๅฎŸ้š›ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏใใ‚Œใ‚ˆใ‚Šใ‚‚ๅ‘ๅŠฃใชใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃ ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใƒˆใƒฉใƒƒใ‚ทใƒฅ
12:23
talk someone you might say yeah where'd you learn to where'd
ใƒˆใƒผใ‚ฏใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใˆใˆใ€ ใฉใ“
12:26
you learn to play football from from your I don't know. Anyways
ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ตใƒƒใ‚ซใƒผใ‚’ๅญฆใถใฎ ใ‹ใ€ใฉใ“ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ตใƒƒใ‚ซใƒผใ‚’ๅญฆใถใฎใ‹ใ€็งใซใฏใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
12:32
it's when you I'm not good at trash Talk by the way. But when
ใจใซใ‹ใใ€็งใŒใ‚ดใƒŸ็ฎฑใŒ่‹ฆๆ‰‹ใชๆ™‚ใงใ™ ใกใชใฟใซ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€
12:35
you trash talk someone you basically are saying mean
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใƒˆใƒฉใƒƒใ‚ทใƒฅใƒˆใƒผใ‚ฏใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃ
12:39
things about them. Usually in a sports game. And by the way you
ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ้€šๅธธใ€ ใ‚นใƒใƒผใƒ„ใ‚ฒใƒผใƒ ใงใ€‚ ใกใชใฟใซใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ
12:43
can flip it as well. You can talk trash about someone. Which
ใ‚‚ใใ‚Œใ‚’่ฃ่ฟ”ใ™ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ‚ดใƒŸใ‚’่ฉฑใ™ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œ
12:46
I think is a little more general and simply means to say
ใฏใ‚‚ใ†ๅฐ‘ใ— ไธ€่ˆฌ็š„ใงใ€ๅ˜ใซ
12:50
mean things about someone. So this I picture this as this
่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใฎๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ™ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใง ใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏใ€
12:53
this older gentleman is saying mean things about this other
ใ“ใฎๅนดไธŠใฎ็ดณๅฃซใŒ ใ“ใฎไป–ใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใงใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚’ๆƒณๅƒใ—
12:57
person. I don't know why that made me laugh because I think I
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใชใœใใ‚ŒใŒ็งใ‚’็ฌ‘ใ‚ใ›ใŸใฎใ‹ๅˆ†ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ใชใœใชใ‚‰ใ€
13:00
think older people are all really kind and then it just
ๅนด้…ใฎไบบใŸใกใฏใฟใ‚“ใช ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ่ฆชๅˆ‡ใ ใจๆ€ใ†ใ—ใ€ใใ‚ŒใฏใŸใ ใฎ
13:04
Kegel. To be a reference. So this is a more formal term and
ใ‚ฑใƒผใ‚ฒใƒซใ ใจๆ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ๅ‚่€ƒใพใงใซใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€ ใ“ใ‚Œใฏใ‚ˆใ‚Šๆญฃๅผใช็”จ่ชžใงใ‚ใ‚Š
13:10
it's similar to vouching for someone. When you act as a
ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไฟ่จผใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซไผผใฆใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๅ‚็…งใจใ—ใฆ่กŒๅ‹•ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€
13:14
reference for someone it means that legally I guess legally
ใใ‚Œ ใฏๆณ•็š„ใซ็งใŒๆณ•็š„ใซ
13:19
definitely formally you are willing to say that person is
้–“้•ใ„ใชใๆญฃๅผใซใ‚ใชใŸใŒ ใใฎไบบใŒไฝ•ใ‹ใŒๅพ—ๆ„ใงใ‚ใ‚‹ใ‹ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ่‰ฏใ„ไบบใงใ‚ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใฃใฆใ‚‚ๆง‹ใ‚ใชใ„ใจๆ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—
13:23
good at something or that they're a good person. So
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใงใ€
13:26
sometimes when people apply for a job they'll say can I will
ๆ™‚ใ€…ไบบใ€…ใŒ ไป•ไบ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ็งใŒ
13:31
you be a reference for me? And that means you're allowing them
็งใฎใŸใ‚ใฎๅ‚็…งใซใชใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆ ใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰
13:35
to put your name on their job application. And then the place
ใซใ‚ใชใŸใฎๅๅ‰ใ‚’ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎๆฑ‚ไบบๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใซ่ผ‰ใ›ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จฑๅฏใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€
13:39
they're applying for the job can call you to see if that
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒไป•ไบ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ๅ ดๆ‰€ ใฏใ€ใใฎไบบใŒ่‰ฏใ„ไบบใงใ‚ใ‚‹ใ‹ใฉใ†ใ‹ใ‚’็ขบ่ชใ™ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใซใ‚ใชใŸใซ้›ป่ฉฑใ‚’ใ‹ใ‘ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™
13:43
person's a good person. So I this is probably a better
ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€็ง ใŒๆ™‚ใ€…ๅญฆ็”Ÿใ‚’ไฟ่จผใ™ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใฃใŸใจใใ€ใ“ใ‚ŒใฏใŠใใ‚‰ใใ‚ˆใ‚Š่‰ฏใ„
13:45
example for when I said sometimes I vouch for students.
ไพ‹ใงใ™ ใ€‚
13:49
Probably a better example would be sometimes a student will ask
ใŠใใ‚‰ใใ‚ˆใ‚Š่‰ฏใ„ไพ‹ใฏ ใ€ๅญฆ็”ŸใŒไป•ไบ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใง
13:53
if I will be a reference because they're applying for a
ใ€็งใŒๅ‚็…งใซใชใ‚‹ใ‹ใฉใ†ใ‹ใ‚’ๅฐ‹ใญใ‚‹ๅ ดๅˆใŒใ‚ใ‚Š ใพใ™
13:56
job. And then that the place they're applying at someone
ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ๅ ดๆ‰€
14:00
will call me and say so Joe your student Joe has applied
ใŒ็งใซ้›ป่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใฎๅญฆ็”Ÿใฎใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒ
14:05
for a job and they've listed you as a reference. Would you
ไป•ไบ‹ใซๅฟœๅ‹Ÿใ—ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’ๅ‚็…งใจใ—ใฆใƒชใ‚นใƒˆใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ† ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใซใคใ„ใฆ
14:08
be able to tell us a little bit about Joe? And then I would say
ๅฐ‘ใ—ๆ•™ใˆใฆใ„ใŸใ ใ‘ ใพใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒ็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ใจ่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†
14:11
Joe's great. Joe's a hard worker etcetera etcetera. Um to
ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ ๅƒใ่€…ใชใฉใงใ™ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’
14:17
build someone up. When you build someone up it means
็ฏ‰ใไธŠใ’ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใซใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’็ฏ‰ใไธŠใ’ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ
14:20
usually you tell them directly but you can also tell other
้€šๅธธใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซ็›ดๆŽฅ่ฉฑใ™ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ ใŒใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏไป–ใฎ
14:25
people good things about them. So if I was talking to Joe I
ไบบใ€…ใซๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’ไผใˆใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰็งใŒใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใŸใ‚‰ใ€
14:30
could say Joe you're really good at this job. Joe I saw the
ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒใ“ใฎไป•ไบ‹ใงๆœฌๅฝ“ใซไธŠๆ‰‹ใ ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ็งใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ…ˆ้€ฑ่กŒใฃใŸไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’่ฆ‹ใพใ—ใŸใ€
14:33
work you did last week and it was awesome. Joe you are doing
ใใ—ใฆใใ‚Œ ใฏ็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ‹ใฃใŸใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚ใชใŸใฏ
14:36
a great job. So I can tell Joe directly. But I could also tell
็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰็งใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใซ็›ดๆŽฅไผใˆใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€็งใฏไธŠๅธใซใ‚‚่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ—ใŸ
14:40
my boss. If I worked with Joe I could go to my boss and say you
ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจไธ€็ท’ใซไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใŸๅ ดๅˆ ใ€ไธŠๅธใฎใจใ“ใ‚ใซ่กŒใฃใฆใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไฝ•ใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™
14:44
know what? I just wanted to put a good in for Joe. He's doing
ใ‹๏ผŸ ็ง ใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฎใŸใ‚ใซ่‰ฏใ„ใ‚‚ใฎใ‚’ๅ…ฅใ‚ŒใŸใ‹ใฃใŸใ ใ‘ใงใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผใฏ
14:47
great work right now. So anytime you say something that
ไปŠ็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใŒ่กŒใฃใŸ่‰ฏใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚„่กŒๅ‹•ใ‚’ๆตฎใๅฝซใ‚Šใซใ™ใ‚‹ ไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใใฏใ„ใคใงใ‚‚ใ€
14:50
will highlight good work or actions that someone has done
14:57
you are building them up. To sabotage. When you sabotage
ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใ‚’็ฏ‰ใไธŠใ’ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฆจๅฎณใ™ใ‚‹ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ
15:03
someone's career or you sabotage someone's work it
่ชฐใ‹ใฎใ‚ญใƒฃใƒชใ‚ขใ‚’ ๅฆจๅฎณใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ๅฆจๅฎณใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œ
15:08
means you destroy it by telling lies behind their back. So it's
ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎๅพŒใ‚ใซๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใ“ใจใซใ‚ˆใฃใฆใใ‚Œใ‚’็ ดๅฃŠใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰
15:14
not a word we use a lot but I did hear this in a movie. Um
ใ€็งใŸใกใŒใ‚ˆใไฝฟใ†่จ€่‘‰ใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ› ใ‚“ใŒใ€ๆ˜ ็”ปใง่žใ„ใŸใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจ
15:18
and so when you hear the phrase like oh he's out to sabotage
ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใ‚ใ‚ใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใชใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บใ‚’่žใใจใใ€ ๅฝผใฏๅฝผๅฅณใฎไบบ็”Ÿใ‚’ๅฆจๅฎณใ™ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใซๅ‡บใ‹ใ‘ใฆ
15:22
her life. It means that they're going to say they're going to
ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใ ใจ่จ€ใ†ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใ ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™
15:26
spread rumours. They're going to tell lies about you. They're
ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใซใคใ„ใฆๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใงใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ
15:29
going to do everything they can to make people not like you. So
ไบบใ€…ใŒใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’ๅฅฝใใซใชใ‚‰ใชใ„ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ™ใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใซใงใใ‚‹้™ใ‚Šใฎใ“ใจใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใงใ™ใ€‚
15:34
that's why I put this picture of one person whispering to
ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰็ง ใฏใ‚ใ‚‹ไบบใŒๅˆฅใฎไบบใซใ•ใ•ใ‚„ใใ“ใฎๅ†™็œŸใ‚’่ผ‰ใ›ใพใ—
15:36
another. Like did you hear Joe quit his job again? Joe Joe
ใŸใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ ใŒใพใŸไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’่พžใ‚ใŸใฎใ‚’่žใ„ใŸ๏ผŸ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ
15:41
quit five jobs in the last five days. He can't keep a job. So
ใฏ้ŽๅŽป5ๆ—ฅ้–“ใง5ใคใฎไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’่พžใ‚ใพใ—ใŸ ใ€‚ ๅฝผใฏไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’็ถšใ‘ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆ
15:45
they're trying to sabotage someone's reputation to
ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ฉ•ๅˆคใ‚’
15:49
sabotage someone's career or to sabotage their life. To rat. So
ๅฆจๅฎณใ—ใฆใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎใ‚ญใƒฃใƒชใ‚ขใ‚’ ๅฆจๅฎณใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎไบบ็”Ÿใ‚’ๅฆจๅฎณใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ—ใ‚ˆใ†ใจใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใƒใ‚บใƒŸใซใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€
15:56
we've gone over this one already. When you rat on
ใ“ใ‚Œใซใคใ„ใฆใฏ ใ™ใงใซ่ชฌๆ˜Žใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใƒใ‚บใƒŸใซใ™ใ‚‹
15:59
someone it means you tell someone in authority what they
ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒๆจฉๅจใฎใ‚ใ‚‹่ชฐใ‹ใซๅฝผใ‚‰
16:03
did. If two of my kids let's say the cookies were gone and I
ใŒไฝ•ใ‚’ใ—ใŸใ‹ใ‚’ไผใˆใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ็งใฎๅญไพ›ใฎใ†ใกใฎ2ไบบใŒ ใ‚ฏใƒƒใ‚ญใƒผใŒใชใใชใฃใŸใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€ใใ—ใฆ็ง
16:08
said to my kids who ate the last cookie and if my one kid
ใŒๆœ€ๅพŒใฎใ‚ฏใƒƒใ‚ญใƒผใ‚’้ฃŸในใŸ็งใฎๅญไพ›ใซ่จ€ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€ ใใ—ใฆ็งใฎ1ไบบใฎๅญไพ›
16:11
said he did Joe ate it. I don't have a kid named Joe. We would
ใŒๅฝผใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’้ฃŸในใŸใจ่จ€ใฃใŸใชใ‚‰ใ€‚ ็งใซใฏ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจใ„ใ†ๅๅ‰ใฎๅญไพ›ใŒใ„ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
16:16
say that that person has ratted out Joe. Or maybe I'm driving
ใใฎไบบใฏใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆค ใ—ใŸใจ่จ€ใˆใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‚‹ใ„ใฏ
16:20
with one of my kids to school and I say you know the TV broke
ใ€ๅญไพ›ใจไธ€็ท’ใซๅญฆๆ ก ใซ้€šใฃใฆใ„ใฆใ€ๅ…ˆๆ—ฅใƒ†ใƒฌใƒ“ใŒๅฃŠใ‚Œ
16:23
the other day do you know what happened? And if they said oh
ใŸใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใŒใ€ไฝ• ใŒ่ตทใ“ใฃใŸใฎใ‹็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ ใใ—ใฆใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ‚ใ‚ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ—ใŸใจ่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚‰
16:26
Joe did it. They would be ratting out Joe. So when you
ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’ๆ‰นๅˆคใ™ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€
16:30
rat someone out it means you tell someone in authority
่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใƒใ‚บใƒŸใซใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๆจฉๅจใฎใ‚ใ‚‹่ชฐใ‹ใซ
16:34
something that they did. To give someone up to give someone
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ—ใŸใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใฏใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’
16:41
up is very similar. Uh when you give someone up it means let's
ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใจ้žๅธธใซไผผใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ
16:45
say Joe and I robbed a bank and we were going to keep it a
ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใจ็งใŒ้Š€่กŒใ‚’ๅฅชใฃใŸใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€ใใ—ใฆ ็งใŸใกใฏใใ‚Œใ‚’็ง˜ๅฏ†ใซใ—ใฆใŠใใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใงใ—ใŸ
16:49
secret and then Joe went to the police and said Bob did it. We
ใ€ใใ—ใฆใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ ่ญฆๅฏŸใซ่กŒใใ€ใƒœใƒ–ใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ—ใŸใจ่จ€ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚
16:53
would say that he gave gave me up. When you give someone up it
ๅฝผใŒ่ซฆใ‚ใŸใฎใฏ็งใ‚’ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใŸใจ่จ€ใˆ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ
16:57
basically means that you've done something illegal or
ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซใ‚ใชใŸใŒ ไฝ•ใ‹้•ๆณ•ใช
17:01
you've done something wrong. And one person again tells
ใ“ใจใ‚’ใ—ใŸใ‹ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไฝ•ใ‹้–“้•ใฃใŸใ“ใจใ‚’ใ—ใŸใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ใ‚ใ‚‹ไบบใŒๅ†ใณ
17:05
someone in authority that you've done it. So to rat and
ๆจฉๅจใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ไบบใซ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ—ใŸใจ่จ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใƒใ‚บใƒŸใจ
17:08
to give someone up are very very very very similar. To stab
่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ใ‚ใใ‚‰ใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใฏ ้žๅธธใซ้žๅธธใซใ‚ˆใไผผใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚
17:14
someone in the back. So this is a little bit different. This is
ๅพŒใ‚ใง่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๅˆบใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆใ€ใ“ใ‚Œ ใฏๅฐ‘ใ—็•ฐใชใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ
17:19
when you betray someone or this is when you you and someone
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ฃๅˆ‡ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใพใŸใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใจ
17:26
else yeah you have there's trust between two people and
ไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใŒใใ†ใใ†ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไบŒไบบใฎ้–“ใซไฟก้ ผใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใงใ‚ใ‚Š ใ€ใใ—ใฆ
17:31
then one of the people goes and does something or tells other
ๆฌกใซไธ€ไบบใŒ่กŒใฃ
17:35
people about something you've done. If you have a secret if
ใฆไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใ‹ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใ—ใŸใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆไป–ใฎไบบใซ่ฉฑใ— ใพใ™ใ€‚
17:40
you and a friend had a secret and your friend told the secret
ใ‚ใชใŸใจๅ‹ไบบใŒ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใฆ ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฎๅ‹ไบบ
17:43
to someone else you could say that they stabbed you in the
ใŒไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’่ฉฑใ—ใŸๅ ดๅˆใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใชใ‚‰ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’ๅพŒใ‚ใงๅˆบใ—ใŸใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™
17:46
back. Okay. So it's a way of betraying some one. It's a way
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‹ใฃใŸใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ฃๅˆ‡ใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œ
17:50
of breaking the trust between two people. And so we have to
ใฏไบŒไบบใฎ้–“ใฎไฟก้ ผใ‚’ๅฃŠใ™ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใ™ ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใŸใกใฏ
17:56
betray. I think I don't know my history very well but I think
่ฃๅˆ‡ใ‚‹ๅฟ…่ฆใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ็งใฏ่‡ชๅˆ†ใฎ ๆญดๅฒใ‚’ใ‚ˆใ็Ÿฅใ‚‰ใชใ„ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใŒใ€
18:01
Brutus betrayed Caesar. I think that's how it went. So Caesar
ใƒ–ใƒซใƒผใ‚ฟใ‚นใฏใ‚ทใƒผใ‚ถใƒผใ‚’่ฃๅˆ‡ใฃใŸใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ†ใ„ใ† ้ขจใซ้€ฒใ‚“ใ ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ทใƒผใ‚ถใƒผ
18:06
trusted Brutus and I think his dying words are like or I don't
ใฏใƒ–ใƒซใƒผใ‚ฟใ‚นใ‚’ไฟก้ ผใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€ใใ—ใฆๅฝผใฎ ๆญปใซใ‹ใ‘ใฆใ„ใ‚‹่จ€่‘‰ใฏไผผใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใพใŸใฏ็งใฏ
18:12
know how to say it but when you have trust and when one of
ใใ‚Œใ‚’่จ€ใ†ๆ–นๆณ•ใŒใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Š ใพใ›
18:16
those people does something that causes harm to the other
18:20
person or makes them feel at or actually something bad happens
ใ‚“ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใซๆ‚ชใ„ใ“ใจใŒ่ตทใ“ใฃ
18:25
to them we would say that you betrayed them. Never nice to
ใŸใฎใงใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใ‚’่ฃๅˆ‡ใฃใŸใจ่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ฃๅˆ‡ใ‚‹ใฎใฏๆฑบใ—ใฆใ„ใ„ใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“
18:30
betray someone. To put someone down. When you put someone down
ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ ๅ€’ใ™ใŸใ‚ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’็ฝฎใใจใใ€
18:34
it means again you're saying mean things about them. So if
ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๅ†ใณๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€
18:39
Joe was a really hard worker and I was talking to someone
ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใŒๆœฌๅฝ“ใซๅƒใ่€…ใง ใ€ไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใจ่ฉฑใ—ใฆ
18:44
else I could say Joe's not a hard worker. Joe is like he's
ใ„ใŸใ‚‰ใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏๅƒใ่€…ใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่จ€ใˆ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏๅฝผ
18:48
the worst worker ever. Um Joe's late for work all the time.
ใŒๅฒไธŠๆœ€ๆ‚ชใฎๅŠดๅƒ่€…ใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ ใ„ใคใ‚‚ไป•ไบ‹ใซ้…ใ‚Œใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚
18:51
He's always leaving early. He steals stuff from work. So
ๅฝผใฏใ„ใคใ‚‚ๆ—ฉใๅ‡บ็™บใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅฝผ ใฏไป•ไบ‹ใ‹ใ‚‰็‰ฉใ‚’็›—ใฟใพใ™ใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€
18:54
you're saying you're you're basically saying mean things
ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซใใฎไบบใซใคใ„ใฆๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใ ใจ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใงใ™
18:59
about the person. That might be true and might not be true. It
ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใชใ„ใ—ใ€ ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใชใ„ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใชใ„ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ
19:03
both could happen. And again you can put someone down to
ไธกๆ–นใจใ‚‚่ตทใ“ใ‚‹ๅฏ่ƒฝๆ€งใŒใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใพใŸใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’
19:06
their face as well. Like I could go up to someone and say
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎ้ก”ใซ็ฝฎใใ“ใจใ‚‚ใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ็ง ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใฎใจใ“ใ‚ใซ่กŒใฃใฆ
19:10
mean things about them and we would use the same phrase to
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆๆ„ๅ‘ณใฎใ‚ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ€็งใŸใก ใฏๅŒใ˜ใƒ•ใƒฌใƒผใ‚บใ‚’ไฝฟใฃ
19:13
put someone down. To whine. So I think children do this the
ใฆ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๅ€’ใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ ็งใฏๅญไพ›ใŸใกใŒใ“ใ‚Œใ‚’ๆœ€ใ‚‚่กŒใ†ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™
19:20
most. When you whine about someone it means you complain
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใ† ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ้•ทใ„้–“ไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™
19:23
about them for a long time. So sometimes after work people
ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ ๆ™‚ใ€…ไป•ไบ‹ใฎๅพŒใซไบบใ€…
19:27
will go to a restaurant. And as they sit around they might
ใฏใƒฌใ‚นใƒˆใƒฉใƒณใซ่กŒใใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒๅ‘จใ‚Šใซๅบงใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใ
19:31
whine about their boss. They might whine about a colleague
ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏไธŠๅธใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏใƒฌใ‚นใƒˆใƒฉใƒณใซใ„ใชใ„ ๅŒๅƒšใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
19:35
that isn't there at the restaurant. So it's basically
ใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„
19:38
very very similar to to complain. And we often use
ใซๆ–‡ๅฅใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใฎใจ้žๅธธใซใ‚ˆใไผผใฆใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใŸใกใฏใ—ใฐใ—ใฐ
19:43
these two words together. So sometimes People get together
ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฎ2ใคใฎๅ˜่ชžใ‚’ไธ€็ท’ใซไฝฟ็”จใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ ไบบใ€…ใŒ
19:47
and they have fun but sometimes they whine and complain about
้›†ใพใฃใฆๆฅฝใ—ใ‚“ใงใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใ‚ใ‚Œ ใฐใ€
19:51
work or they whine and complain about their boss or they whine
ไป•ไบ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใฃ ใŸใ‚Šใ€ไธŠๅธใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€
19:56
and complain about their co-worker. Um so definitely
ใ‚’่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€ๅŒๅƒšใซใคใ„ใฆๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚Šใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใ‚ใ‚Š ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€็ขบใ‹ใซ
19:59
these two words mean the same thing and they often go
ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฎ2ใคใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใฏๅŒใ˜ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใ€ ใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฏใ—ใฐใ—ใฐ
20:04
together and yeah it's a lot more fun to go out with people
ไธ€็ท’ใซใชใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€ใใ—ใฆใˆใˆใ€ไป•ไบ‹ใ‹ใ‚‰ใฎ ไบบใ€…ใจไธ€็ท’ใซๅ‡บใ‹ใ‘ใฆๆฅฝใ—ใ‚“ใงใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใฏใ‚‚ใฃใจๆฅฝใ—ใ„
20:08
from work and enjoy yourself. It's not fun to go out and
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ๅค–ใซๅ‡บใฆใ€
20:12
listen to people whine and complain about everything. So
ไบบใ€…ใŒๆณฃใ่จ€ใ‚’ ่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€ใ™ในใฆใซใคใ„ใฆไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚Šใ™ใ‚‹ใฎใ‚’่žใใฎใฏๆฅฝใ—ใ„ใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
20:16
anyways this you use to talk about a situation or people.
ใจใซใ‹ใใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ็Šถๆณใ‚„ไบบใ€…ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใŸใ‚ใซไฝฟ็”จใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚
20:20
Both will work. To ruin someone's reputation. When you
ใฉใกใ‚‰ใ‚‚ๆฉŸ่ƒฝใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ฉ•ๅˆคใ‚’ๅฐ็„กใ—ใซใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸ
20:25
ruin someone's reputation it means you lie about them or you
ใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ฉ•ๅˆคใ‚’ๅฐ็„กใ—ใซใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใใ‚Œ ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใใ‹
20:29
reveal a secret that they didn't want revealed. You do
ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ ใŒๆ˜Žใ‚‰ใ‹ใซใ—ใŸใใชใ„็ง˜ๅฏ†ใ‚’ๆ˜Žใ‚‰ใ‹ใซใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ
20:33
something that makes them this happens a lot with celebrities.
ๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใ“ใ‚ŒใŒๆœ‰ๅไบบใงใŸใใ•ใ‚“่ตทใ“ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ™ใ‚‹ไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใพใ™ ใ€‚
20:37
So a celebrity might have done something in the past and when
ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆใ€ๆœ‰ๅไบบ ใฏ้ŽๅŽปใซไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใŸๅฏ่ƒฝๆ€งใŒใ‚ใ‚Š
20:41
they when someone reveals that it might they might no longer
ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ๆ˜Žใ‚‰ใ‹ใซใ—ใŸใจใใซใ€ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏใ‚‚ใฏใ‚„ๅƒใใ“ใจใŒใงใใชใ„ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
20:46
be able to work. They won't get hired to make movies. Um this
ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ๆ˜ ็”ปใ‚’ไฝœใ‚‹ใŸใ‚ใซ้›‡ใ‚ใ‚Œใ‚‹ใ“ใจใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ“ใ‚Œ
20:49
happens sometimes with teenagers where someone will
ใฏ ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใŒ
20:53
make up a story or tell a lie about someone else and tell the
็‰ฉ่ชžใ‚’ไฝœใฃใŸใ‚Šใ€่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใ„ใŸใ‚Šใ—ใฆใ€
20:57
whole school and a person who everyone liked now all of the
ๅญฆๆ กๅ…จไฝ“ใซ่ฉฑใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ€ไปŠใงใฏ ่ชฐใ‚‚
21:01
sudden students don't like that person because someone ruined
ใŒๅฅฝใใ ใฃใŸ ไบบใซใ€่ชฐใ‹
21:05
their reputation. Not a kind thing to do at all. Um to
ใŒ่ฉ•ๅˆคใ‚’ๅฐ็„กใ—ใซใ—ใŸใŸใ‚ใซ็ช็„ถใฎๅญฆ็”Ÿๅ…จๅ“กใŒใใฎไบบใ‚’ๅซŒใ†ใจใ„ใ†ใƒ†ใ‚ฃใƒผใƒณใ‚จใ‚คใ‚ธใƒฃใƒผใงๆ™‚ใ€…่ตทใ“ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ่ฆชๅˆ‡ ใชใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚
21:11
defame and to slander. So when you defame or slander someone
ๅ่ช‰ใ‚’ๆฏ€ๆใ—ใ€่ชน่ฌ—ไธญๅ‚ทใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ€‚ ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆใ€ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ไธญๅ‚ทใ—ใŸใ‚Šไธญๅ‚ทใ—ใŸใ‚Šใ™ใ‚‹ใจใ
21:17
they pretty much mean the same thing. But they have more of a
ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏใปใจใ‚“ใฉๅŒใ˜ ใ“ใจใ‚’ๆ„ๅ‘ณใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏใ‚ˆใ‚Š
21:20
formal legal definition. So when you let me actually give
ๆญฃๅผใชๆณ•็š„ๅฎš็พฉใ‚’ๆŒใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใง ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ็งใซๅฎŸ้š›ใซใ‚ใชใŸใซๅฎš็พฉใ‚’ไธŽใˆใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ•ใ›ใŸใจใ
21:25
you the definition. It's when you say something about someone
ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ…ฌใซไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใใงใ™
21:29
Publicly. But you can then they can then take you to court if
ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ˜˜ใ‚’ใคใ„ใŸๅ ดๅˆใ€ๅฝผใ‚‰ ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’ๆณ•ๅปทใซ้€ฃใ‚Œใฆ่กŒใใ“ใจใŒใงใ
21:35
you lied. So slander. Um to make false and damaging
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰่ชน่ฌ—ไธญๅ‚ทใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆๅ…ฌใซ ่™šๅฝใฎๆœ‰ๅฎณใช
21:40
statements about someone publicly. And then let's look
็™บ่จ€ใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ ใ“ใจใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€
21:44
for demean or defame sorry. Defame. To damage the good
็”ณใ—่จณใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใŒใ€ไธญๅ‚ทใพใŸใฏๅ่ช‰ๆฏ€ๆใ‚’ๆŽขใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ๅ่ช‰ๆฏ€ๆใ€‚
21:49
reputation of someone through slander or liable and to do so
่ชน่ฌ—ไธญๅ‚ทใพใŸใฏ่ฒฌไปปใ‚’่ฒ ใฃใฆ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ฉ•ๅˆคใ‚’ๅ‚ทใคใ‘ใ€ๅ…ฌใซใใ†ใ™ใ‚‹
21:53
publicly. So again these are more like legal definitions of
ใ“ใจใ€‚ ใคใพใ‚Šใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใ‚‰ใฏ่ชฐ ใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใ„ใ†ๆณ•็š„ใชๅฎš็พฉใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใช
21:58
saying something about someone. When you spread gossip or when
ใ‚‚ใฎใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€
22:02
you spread rumours or when you gossip about someone there's no
ๅ™‚ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใพใŸใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆใ‚ดใ‚ทใƒƒใƒ—ใ‚’ๅบƒใ‚ใ‚‹ใจใใ€
22:05
legal ramifications. Do you know that word? Like they can't
ๆณ•็š„ใชๅฝฑ้Ÿฟใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ‹๏ผŸ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’่จดใˆใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใชใ„ใ‚ˆใ†ใซ
22:09
sue you. But if a newspaper publishes something that's
ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ๆ–ฐ่žใŒ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใชใ„ ไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’็™บ่กจใ—ใŸๅ ดๅˆ
22:13
untrue. Or if something is said publicly that's untrue. Someone
ใ€‚ ใพใŸใฏใ€ไฝ•ใ‹ใŒๅ…ฌใซ่จ€ใ‚ใ‚Œใฆใ„ใ‚‹ๅ ดๅˆใ€ใใ‚Œใฏ็œŸๅฎŸใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹
22:18
can say no that's slander or you've defamed me and they
ใŒใใ‚Œใฏ่ชน่ฌ—ไธญๅ‚ทใ ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€ใพใŸใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ็งใ‚’ไธญๅ‚ทใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€ใใ—ใฆๅฝผใ‚‰
22:21
might take you to court. And we also have to falsely accuse I
ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใ‚’ๆณ•ๅปทใซ้€ฃใ‚Œใฆ่กŒใใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆใ€็งใฏ ใพใŸใ€็งใฎๅญไพ›ใŸใกใฎไฝ•ไบบใ‹ใŒ็‰นๅฎšใฎใ“ใจ
22:28
have been guilty of falsely accusing some of my children of
ใ‚’ใ—ใŸใจ่ชคใฃใฆ้ž้›ฃใ—ใŸใ“ใจใง็งใŒ็ฝชใ‚’็Šฏใ—ใŸใจ่ชคใฃใฆ้ž้›ฃใ—ใชใ‘ใ‚Œใฐใชใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“
22:32
doing certain things. Um sometimes when something
ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹
22:35
happens like let's say someone broke something in the house.
ใŒๅฎถใฎไธญใงไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ๅฃŠใ—ใŸใจใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚
22:40
You might think you which child did it. But if you tell them I
ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใฉใฎๅญไพ›ใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ—ใŸใจๆ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œ ใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซ่จ€ใฃใŸๅ ดๅˆใ€็ง
22:44
know you did it and they didn't you are falsely accusing
ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ—ใŸใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€ใใ—ใฆๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ชคใฃใฆ้ž้›ฃใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ›ใ‚“ใงใ—ใŸ
22:47
someone. This also happens in the world. Sometimes people
ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œ ใฏไธ–็•Œใงใ‚‚่ตทใ“ใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆ™‚ใ€…ไบบใ€…
22:51
will falsely accuse someone else. They'll tell the police
ใฏไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ชคใฃใฆ้ž้›ฃใ™ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฏ่ญฆๅฏŸ
22:55
that someone did something and when it's not true. So not a
ใซ่ชฐใ‹ใŒไฝ•ใ‹ใ‚’ใ— ใŸใ“ใจใจใใ‚ŒใŒ็œŸๅฎŸใงใชใ„ใจใใ‚’ๅ‘Šใ’ใ‚‹ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใพใฃใŸใ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“
23:00
nice thing at all. To praise. So you can praise someone to
ใ€‚ ่ณž่ณ›ใ™ใ‚‹ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๅฝผใ‚‰ใฎ้ก”ใซ่ณž่ณ›ใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™
23:05
their face. You can go to someone and say good job. Um
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ่ชฐใ‹ใซ่กŒใฃใฆ่‰ฏใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ™ใ€‚
23:08
awesome work. Um but you can also pray someone to someone
็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใงใ‚‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’่ชฐใ‹ใซ็ฅˆใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใงใ
23:12
else. I could say you know Rod the Brazilian English teacher
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใกใชใฟใซ ใ€ใƒ–ใƒฉใ‚ธใƒซใฎ่‹ฑ่ชžใฎๅ…ˆ็”Ÿใงใ‚ใ‚‹ใƒญใƒƒใƒ‰ใ‚’ใ”ๅญ˜็Ÿฅใ ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™
23:17
by the way. Rod the English teacher in the chat. Uh Rod's
ใ€‚ ใƒใƒฃใƒƒใƒˆใง่‹ฑ่ชžใฎๅ…ˆ็”Ÿใ‚’ใƒญใƒƒใƒ‰ใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ใƒญใƒƒใƒ‰ใฎ
23:20
really nice guy. Uh he does really good work as well on
ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซใ„ใ„ไบบใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€ๅฝผใฏ YouTubeใงใ‚‚ๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ่‰ฏใ„ไป•ไบ‹ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„
23:23
YouTube. And he teaches classes. English classes and
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใใ—ใฆๅฝผใฏใ‚ฏใƒฉใ‚นใ‚’ๆ•™ใˆใฆใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ่‹ฑ่ชžใฎๆŽˆๆฅญใจ
23:26
he's good at it. I'm giving Rod praise. Um I could do that to
ๅฝผใฏใใ‚ŒใŒๅพ—ๆ„ใงใ™ใ€‚ ็งใฏใƒญใƒƒใƒ‰ใ‚’ ็งฐ่ณ›ใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€็งใŒๅฝผใจ่ฉฑใ—
23:30
Rod which I've done when I've talked to him. But I can also
ใŸใจใใซ็งใŒใ—ใŸใƒญใƒƒใƒ‰ใซใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใงใใพใ— ใŸใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€็งใฏ
23:33
do it to someone else. Okay so it's like kind of like
ไป–ใฎ่ชฐใ‹ใซใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ•ใฆใ€ ใใ‚Œใฏไธ€็จฎใฎๆŽจ่–ฆใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ‚‚ใฎใงใ™
23:37
recommending. It's kind of like saying good things about
ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ ใซใคใ„ใฆ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ‚ˆใ†ใชใ‚‚ใฎ
23:39
someone. You can also sing someone's praises. Okay. So
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ณ›็พŽใ‚’ๆญŒใ†ใ“ใจใ‚‚ใงใใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‹ใฃใŸใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰
23:45
when you sing someone's praises you say a lot of good things
ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎ่ณ›็พŽใ‚’ๆญŒใ†ใจใใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆๅคšใใฎ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใ„
23:48
about them. So you might you might talk about them for 10
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ10ๅˆ†้–“่ฉฑใ™ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
23:52
minutes And the whole time you're talking about them
ใใ—ใฆ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹้–“
23:55
you're saying good things about them. So a very nice thing to
ใšใฃใจใ‚ใชใŸใฏใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใจใฆใ‚‚ใ„ใ„ใ“ใจ
23:58
do. If you know someone who's doing something really good in
ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไธ–็•Œใงๆœฌๅฝ“ใซ่‰ฏใ„ใ“ใจใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใชใ‚‰
24:03
the world. You might say you know this person donates a lot
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏ ใ“ใฎไบบใŒใŸใใ•ใ‚“ใฎใŠ้‡‘ใ‚’ๅฏ„ไป˜ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“
24:06
of money. This person we should use Joe. Joe donates a lot. Of
ใ€‚ ใ“ใฎไบบใฏ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใ‚’ไฝฟใ†ในใใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใŸใใ•ใ‚“ๅฏ„ไป˜ใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚
24:10
money. Joe volunteers to help out at a soup kitchen to feed
ใŠ้‡‘ใฎใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏใ€ใƒ›ใƒผใƒ ใƒฌใ‚นใ‚’้คŠใ†ใŸใ‚ใซ็‚Šใๅ‡บใ—ใ‚’ๆ‰‹ไผใ†ใƒœใƒฉใƒณใƒ†ใ‚ฃใ‚ขใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใพใ™
24:14
the homeless. Joe is a great person. If I talked about Joe
ใ€‚ ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏ็ด ๆ™ดใ‚‰ใ—ใ„ ไบบใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ‚‚ใ—็งใŒใ‚ธใƒงใƒผ
24:18
for 5 minutes or 10 minutes and just continually said good
ใซใคใ„ใฆ5ๅˆ†ใ‹10ๅˆ†้–“่ฉฑใ—ใ€ใใ—ใฆ ใŸใ ็ตถใˆใš่‰ฏใ„
24:22
things I would be singing his praises. To question someone's
ใ“ใจใ‚’่จ€ใฃใŸใ‚‰ใ€็งใฏๅฝผใฎ่ณ›็พŽใ‚’ๆญŒใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ† ใ€‚ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๆจฉๅจใซ็–‘ๅ•ใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‹ใ‘ใ‚‹ใ“ใจ
24:28
authority. So when you question someone's authority it's when
ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๆจฉๅจใซ็–‘ๅ•ใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‹ใ‘ใ‚‹ใจใ
24:33
you talk about them and you you're basically saying they
ใ€ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅฝผใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใจใใงใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ ใ‚ใชใŸใฏๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซๅฝผใ‚‰
24:38
shouldn't be in power anymore. So sometimes at work people
ใŒใ‚‚ใ†ๆจฉๅŠ›ใ‚’ๆกใ‚‹ในใใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใฎใŸใ‚ใ€่ทๅ ดใง
24:42
will question the boss's authority. In Government.
ใฏไธŠๅธใฎๆจฉ้™ใซ็–‘ๅ•ใ‚’ๅ‘ˆใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Š ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๆ”ฟๅบœใงใ€‚
24:46
People sometimes question someone's authority. Right now
ไบบใ€…ใฏๆ™‚ใ€… ่ชฐใ‹ใฎๆจฉๅจใซ็–‘ๅ•ใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‹ใ‘ใพใ™ใ€‚ ็พๅœจ
24:49
there is a protest in Ottawa and people are questioning
ใ€ใ‚ชใ‚ฟใƒฏใงๆŠ—่ญฐใŒ ใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ไบบใ€…ใฏ
24:53
Justin Trudeau's authority. So when you question someone's
ใ‚ธใƒฃใ‚นใƒ†ใ‚ฃใƒณใƒปใƒˆใƒซใƒ‰ใƒผใฎๆจฉๅจใซ็–‘ๅ•ใ‚’ๆŠ•ใ’ใ‹ใ‘ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใŸใŒใฃใฆ ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใฎๆจฉๅจใซ่ณชๅ•ใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใฏใ€่ณชๅ•ใ‚’
24:57
authority you ask questions and you talk about them in a way
ใ—ใ€
25:02
where you're basically saying they shouldn't be in charge
ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซ ๅฝผใ‚‰ใŒใ‚‚ใ†ๆ‹…ๅฝ“ใ™ใ‚‹ในใใงใฏใชใ„ใจ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ๆ–นๆณ•ใงใใ‚Œใ‚‰ใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—
25:05
anymore. Okay this next word this last word please listen
ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใ•ใฆใ€ใ“ใฎๆฌกใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ€ ใ“ใฎๆœ€ๅพŒใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใฏ
25:10
carefully as I explain it. Okay? This is a word that's a
ใ€็งใŒ่ชฌๆ˜Žใ™ใ‚‹ใจใใซๆณจๆ„ๆทฑใ่žใ„ใฆใใ ใ•ใ„ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‹ใฃใŸ๏ผŸ ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ
25:15
bad word in English. But I'm going to talk about the verb
่‹ฑ่ชžใงๆ‚ชใ„่จ€่‘‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€็งใฏใใ‚Œ ใฎๅ‹•่ฉžๅฝขๅผใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใคใ‚‚ใ‚Šใงใ™
25:20
form of it. Okay? So in English if you call someone if you call
ใ€‚ ใ‚ใ‹ใฃใŸ๏ผŸ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€่‹ฑ่ชžใง ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’ๅ‘ผใถใชใ‚‰
25:27
someone a **** that is a bad word. That is not a nice thing
ใ€่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’****ใจๅ‘ผใถใฎใฏๆ‚ชใ„ ่จ€่‘‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏใ„ใ„ใ“ใจใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›
25:31
to say. But in the verb form it's kind of an informal slang
ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ๅ‹•่ฉžใฎๅฝข ใงใฏใ€ใใ‚Œใฏไธ€็จฎใฎ้žๅ…ฌๅผใชไฟ—่ชžใง
25:38
and a crude way to talk about complaining. So when you
ใ‚ใ‚Šใ€ไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ™ใŸใ‚ใฎๅคง้›‘ๆŠŠใชๆ–นๆณ• ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใงใ€ใ‚ใชใŸ
25:42
complain a lot sometimes people will say that you're **** Okay?
ใŒใŸใใ•ใ‚“ไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใ†ใจใใ€ๆ™‚ใ€…ไบบใ€… ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒ****ๅคงไธˆๅคซใ ใจ่จ€ใ†ใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†๏ผŸ
25:47
Um all Joe does he just **** about work. So again listen
ใˆใˆใจใ€ใ‚ธใƒงใƒผใฏไป•ไบ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆ****ใ ใ‘ใ‚„ใฃใฆใ„ ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใงใ™ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ใ‚‚ใ†ไธ€ๅบฆๆณจๆ„ๆทฑใ่žใ„ใฆใใ ใ•ใ„
25:51
carefully. This is not a word you would use at work. This is
ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ทๅ ดใงไฝฟใ†่จ€่‘‰ใงใฏใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ ใ€‚ ใ“ใ‚Œ
25:56
a very informal word. I said it slang. It's it's more informal.
ใฏ้žๅธธใซ้žๅ…ฌๅผใช่จ€่‘‰ใงใ™ใ€‚ ไฟ—่ชžใ ใจ่จ€ใฃใŸ ใ€‚ ใใ‚Œใฏใ‚‚ใฃใจ้žๅ…ฌๅผใงใ™ใ€‚
26:01
But it's actually more common than you think. Um I actually
ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ๅฎŸ้š›ใซ ใฏใ‚ใชใŸใŒๆ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ‚Šใ‚‚ไธ€่ˆฌ็š„ใงใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใƒผใจ
26:05
have heard this word a few times lately. Um so again when
ใ€ๆœ€่ฟ‘ใ“ใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ‚’ไฝ•ๅบฆใ‹่žใ„ใŸใ“ใจใŒใ‚ใ‚Š ใพใ™ใ€‚ ใˆใˆใจใ€
26:09
you call someone the B word that is a bad thing. But when
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ่ชฐใ‹ใ‚’Bใƒฏใƒผใƒ‰ใจๅ‘ผใถใจใใ€ ใใ‚Œใฏๆ‚ชใ„ใ“ใจใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ‚ใชใŸใŒๅ‹ไบบใจ่ฉฑใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใซ
26:14
you use it in this way if you're talking to a friend and
ใใ‚Œใ‚’ใ“ใฎใ‚ˆใ†ใซไฝฟใ†ใจใใ€
26:18
you say you know let's stop **** about And let's talk about
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒ็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†ใชใ‚‰ใ€ ****ใซใคใ„ใฆใ‚„ใ‚ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใใ—ใฆ
26:22
something positive. So again I don't know. Maybe I don't know
ไฝ•ใ‹ๅ‰ๅ‘ใใชใ“ใจใซใคใ„ใฆ่ฉฑใ—ใพใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใ€‚ ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใพใŸใ€็ง ใฏ็Ÿฅใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใ€‚ ใƒ–ใƒฌใƒณใƒˆใŒใพใ ใƒใƒฃใƒƒใƒˆใซๅ‚ๅŠ ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ‹ใฉใ†ใ‹ใฏใ‚ใ‹ใ‚Šใพใ›ใ‚“ใŒ
26:27
if Brent's still here in the chat but I know he has to leave
ใ€ ๅฝผใฏ
26:29
and teach usually but this is just a very crude informal
้€šๅธธใฏ้›ขใ‚Œใฆๆ•™ใˆใชใ‘ใ‚Œใฐใชใ‚‰ใชใ„ใ“ใจใฏ็Ÿฅใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใŒใ€ใ“ใ‚Œใฏ
26:34
slang way to say that you're complaining about something.
ใ‚ใชใŸใŒไฝ•ใ‹ใซใคใ„ใฆไธๅนณใ‚’่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่จ€ใ†้žๅธธใซๅคง้›‘ๆŠŠใช้žๅ…ฌๅผใฎไฟ—่ชžใงใ™ ใ€‚
26:38
There I hope that made sense. Basically what I'm saying is
ใใ“ใง็งใฏใใ‚ŒใŒ็†ใซใ‹ใชใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใ‚’้ก˜ใฃใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚ ๅŸบๆœฌ็š„ใซ็งใŒ่จ€ใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใฎใฏใ€
26:41
you'll hear this word but maybe you shouldn't use it. But you
ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใ“ใฎ่จ€่‘‰ใ‚’่žใใงใ—ใ‚‡ใ†ใŒใ€ๅคšๅˆ† ใ‚ใชใŸใฏใใ‚Œใ‚’ไฝฟใ†ในใใงใฏใชใ„ใจใ„ใ†ใ“ใจใงใ™ใ€‚ ใ—ใ‹ใ—ใ€ใ„ใคใ‹ไผš่ฉฑ
26:45
might hear it if you're having a conversation sometime.
ใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจ่žใ“ใˆใ‚‹ใ‹ใ‚‚ใ—ใ‚Œใพใ›ใ‚“ ใ€‚
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